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FSU PPE 3003 - Chapter 9

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PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 4: Chapters 9, 10, & 11Chapter 91) Know the three parts of the mind (from a psychoanalytic perspective) and be ableto describe each- Conscious: thoughts, feelings, and images about which you ARE aware- Preconscious: Information you are not thinking about, but can easily be made conscious- Unconscious: Hidden “unacceptable” thoughts, memories, or feelings2) Be able to define “psychic determinism”- Psychic Determinism: All behaviors and thoughts are an expression of the mind; nothing happens by chance- Dreams: “the royal road to the unconscious”; manifest content vs. latent content- Manifest Content: What a dream actually contains- Latent Content: What the elements of a dream represent- Freudian Slips: When somebody says something else because their mind is elsewhere; examples of newswoman saying “penis” instead of whatever word was being proctored to them on television.3) Be able to describe the id, ego, and superego - Psychic Energy is directed by the id, ego, and superego- Id: pleasure principle- Ego: reality principle- Superego: morality/values principle- MODERN IDEAS ABOUT THE FINITE SUPPLY OF PSYCHIC ENERGY: ego depletion refers to the idea that self-control relies on a limited source- Exercising self-control diminishes one’s ability to exercise self-control in theimmediate future (cookies and radishes example: people who held off from eating cookies had more self control then people who held off from eating radishes)4) Be able to list and describe the stages of psychosexual development- Children pass through 3 stages in which they face conflicts regarding sexual gratification; the manner in which children dorms the basis for personality; failure to resolve a conflict leads to a fixation- Oral stage: birth to 18 months- Source of pleasure: Mouth- Conflict: Weaning; excessive pleasure from breast/bottle feeding; fear of abandonment- Fixation (if conflict not resolved): smoking or overeating, being overly dependent- Anal Stage: 18 months – 3 years- Source of pleasure: Anus- Conflict: Toilet Training; exercising the right amount of control- Fixation (if conflict not resolved): overly neat and controlling, or impulsive and messy- Phallic Stage: 3 – 5 years- Source of pleasure: Genitals- Conflict: Oedipal/Electra; desire to have opposite sex parent to oneself- Fixation (if conflict not resolved): lack of moral development- Latency and Genital Stages: not marked by characteristic conflicts- Latency Stage: 6 years to puberty; not much psychological development- Genital Stage: puberty to end of life; one only reaches this stage after resolving the conflicts of the other stages5) Know how Freud’s ideas laid the groundwork for modern ideas regarding the partitioned mind and ego depletionEgo Depletion: When someone feels physically tired after fighting off temptation that would satisfy his or her IDKahneman had modern ideas about partitioned mind: - System 1: automatic, effortless, intuitive- System 2: effortful, analytical6) Know and be able to recognize examples of the defense mechanisms discussed in class- Denial: refusing to acknowledge anxiety-provoking facts (e.g., “No I didn’t get dumped, it was a mutual breakup”) - Displacement: channeling a troublesome impulse to a nonthreatening target (e.g., mad at boss, but take it out on subordinates)- Rationalization: generating acceptable reasons for undesirable behavior (e.g., “it is okay to steal from Wal-Mart, it is an evil company”)- Reaction Formation: attempting to stifle the expression of an undesirable urge by acting the exact opposite way (e.g., killing with kindness)- Projection: noticing and disparaging a person for having an undesirable trait that one has (e.g., a narcissist saying “that person is so self-obsessed; what a jerk)- Sublimation: channeling unacceptable urges into acceptable outlets (e.g., working out when you are really angry)7) Know the two criteria that Freud used to judge whether an adult developed successfully- Productivity- Satisfying Relationships8) Know the information from Chapter 9 that was not discussed in class (and how it relates to the info discussed in class)http://quizlet.com/15097589/ch-9-psychoanalytic-approaches-to-personality-flash-cards/Chapter 101) Know the 5 ideas behind modern psychoanalysis- Contemporary Psychoanalysis was inspired by Freud and modified and advanced by others- Focus on childhood relationships and adult conflicts with others- 5 ideas behind modern psychoanalysis: 1: Unconscious is important2: Behavior reflects conflict between desires/fears3: A lot of personality development happens in childhood4: How we see self and others guides interactions5: Development= learning how to get along with others2) Know and understand the processes that can lead to false memories- Leading questions, imagination inflation effect and confirmatory bias are processesthat help create false memories- Loftus: some, but not all, recovered memories are false- Confirmatory Bias: when we have a belief, we have a tendency to look for evidence to confirm that belief, and tend to keep digging until we find it3) Know how the modern view of unconscious processes differs from Freud’s view of the unconscious.We don’t usually refer to Freud’s id, ego, and superego anymore. Rather we focus on motivated and cognitive unconscious. 4) Understand the studies on priming that were discussed in classPriming: a technique to make associate material more accessible to conscious awareness than material that is not this- Bargh’s priming studies: rudeness and elderly- Unconscious info can have brief, predictable influence on thoughts/behavior- Much more evidence for the cognitive unconscious than the motivated unconscious5) Know the roles of the ego- Roles of ego: master of environment, achieve goals, and establish identity (sense of self)- Difficult establishing identity identity crisis- Confusion about roles/goals- Erik Erikson believed that ego is a powerful and independent part of personality 6) Know Erikson’s 8 stages of development and the questions that accompany each stage.- Personality Development occurs throughout life- Social challenges at each stage (non-sexual)- Retained idea of fixation1: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy)- Are other people generally good?2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood)- How much of the world do I control?3: Initiative vs. Guilt (young childhood)- How do I achieve goals?4: Industry vs. Inferiority (elementary


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