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FSU PSY 2012 - Unit Four Study Guide

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Unit Four Study GuideTopic One: Lifespan DevelopmentKey Terms:AuthoritarianControl every move, rules even if its arbitrary, “because I said so” – rebellion,depression, anxietyAuthoritativeParent that is in the middle, sets clear ground rules, explains rules, and are flexible in some cases –best outcome. PermissiveAllows child to do anything, parent wants to be your best friend at all costs –substance abuse, egocentrism, no rules anywhere (real world and home), conduct problems, delinquency Concrete DevelopmentDevelopment was like stairs – go along, make an advancement, go along, make an advancementContinuous DevelopmentDevelopment was like a ramp, children gradually develop and understand, scaffolding (parents always need to be one level above child, and challenge them)Crystallized IntelligenceOur accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with ageFluid IntelligenceOur ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease duringlate adulthood.Fetal Alcohol SyndromeBirth deformities from mother drinking alcohol while pregnantInfantile AmnesiaDon’t remember anything before the age of 3Insecure AttachmentOnes for whom a parent has not been there, bad life outcomesLev VygotskyBelieved in continuous development Longitudinal DesignResearch in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of timeCross-sectional designA study in which people of different ages are compared with anotherNeural Pruningif not needed, it’s cut away, disposed of (a lot of metabolism and glucose to keep neurons running)Piaget’s Stages of CognitiveDevelopmentSensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operationalSecure AttachmentOnes for whom a parent has been there most of the time, trust the parent will be there to care for them, all sorts of good life outcomesTeratogenHarmful substance that can be passed from mother to child that causes problems with developmentUniversal Physical DevelopmentAll kids develop at the same rate- Crying, crawling & walking, teething, talkingConcepts:1. Understand the early development of the brain and the process of neural pruning. a. The young brain1. Prenatal development1. 250,000 brain cells per minuteb. Early life and pruning1. The most neurons we will ever have1. 23 billion 2. “stupid” because they have not made the connections yet3. 3-6 years (frontal lobe-decision making, problem solving, inhibition)4. 6 – adolescence (association areas)2. Give some examples of teratogens and known consequences resulting from exposure to them.a. Drugs- Accutane, Thalidomide (used to treat extreme nausea) causes extreme birth defects (stunted growth of appendages) b. Alcohol-FAS: deformities> social problems; low IQc. Smoking- nicotine causes addiction, restriction in blood vessels > baby doesn’t get enough nutrients > low birth weight3. Role of parentsa. Involved = socialb. Eating healthyc. Being thered. Reading with them = biggest predictor1. More words said, more intelligent2. Learn to talk faster, memorize vocabulary better 4. How do we know that infants have memory? a. Infants learn vocabulary, learn to walk, learn to crawl – none of these things have to be relearned after 3b. Things that are well learned (language, sounds) and/or implicit memories we retainc. All explicit memory is lost5. Give at least one example of an experiment that works around the limitations of working with infants in order to answer questions about development?a. Mobile attached to a string attached to the babies leg – baby kicks to make itmove6. How are these limitations overcome?a. Infants can be taught b. Don’t mix things up – keep the same mobile, or bottle, etc.7. Who is Jean Piaget? How did he develop his theories of development?a. Worked with Alfred Binetb. Interested in the mistakes1. Would miss the same questions when they were a certain age8. What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?a. Birth – 2 = Sensorimotor1. Object permanence – once something is out of view, it no longer exists2. Stranger anxietyb. 2 - 6 or 7 = Preoperational 1. Pretend play –gender roles2. Egocentrismc. 7-11 = Concrete operational 1. Conversational2. Mathematical transformationsd. 12 – adulthood = Formal operational1. Abstract logic 2. Potential for mature moral reasoning9. How did Piaget’s idea of concrete development differ from Vygotsky’s idea of scaffolding and continuous development? a. Piaget = stairs Vygotsky = ramp10.Know the importance of attachment and the difference between secure and insecure attachment? a. Secure attachment is successful for good development 11.Is daycare detrimental to the formation of secure attachment?a. Can result in less secure attachment if its low quality b. High quality = positive attachment outcomes 12.What was the main finding of Harlow’s experiment with the rhesus monkeys?a. Nurturing is more important to a child, they’ll go back after they get food (after waiting until they are very hungry)13.What are the various parenting styles? Give example behaviors from each style.a. Authoritarian, authoritative, permissive14.What cognitive developments accompany the development of the frontal lobe?a. Memory and intelligence 15.What social changes are associated with adolescence?a. Improved judgment, impulse control, ability to plan for long termb. Search for identityc. Fight between roles and identityd. Capacity for intimacye. Peer influence > parent influence16.Know the concept of emerging adulthood.a. For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood. b. Eased into adulthood, instead of abruptly 1. Diminishing bouts of depression or anger and increased self esteemc. Western cultures17.What are the physical declines associated with old aging?a. Sensory ability b. Reaction timec. Fertility (women)18.What are the cognitive declines? a. Alzheimer’sb. Parkinson’sc. Multiple Sclerosis 19.Is age kinder to the initially more able? Can we mitigate the problems associated with aging?a. Until late life intelligence remainsb. Depends on the type of information we are trying to receivec. Different intellectual tasks increase with age whereas others decrease20.Which type of intelligence typically rises with age? Which decreases?a. Increases - Vocabulary, information, comprehensionb. Decreases- similarities, digit symbol, block design, matrix reasoning, letter


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