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FSU PSY 2012 - EXAM III LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDY GUIDE

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EXAM III LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDY GUIDE(CH 6,10, EXPERTISE LECTURE)Objectives: Chapter 6(Learning)Pages 202-2321. Know learning and the major types of learning. Learning is the change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience3 Types Of LearningClassical Conditioning – learning through associationOperant Conditioning – learning through consequencesModeling/Observation Learning – learning through observation2. Know classical conditioning and its four basic components. Classical Conditioning or “Pavlovian Conditioning” is a form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response.Four ComponentsUnconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – the stimulus that elicits an automatic responseUnconditioned Response (UCR) – the automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learnedConditioned Response (CR) – the response previously associated with nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioningConditioned Stimulus (CS) – the initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus3. Know of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Acquisition - the learning phase during which a conditioned response is establishedExtinction – the gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulusSpontaneous Recovery – the sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulusGeneralization – the process by which conditioned stimuli similar, but not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned responseDiscrimination – the process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus 4. Know which schedule of reinforcement leads to the most enduring behavior. Continuous Reinforcement yields best behavior. Variable Ratio is schedule of reinforcement that yields highest rate of response. 5. Identify the critical role of behavior in distinguishing classical conditioning from operant conditioning. Operant condition is learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior. Classical conditioning is learning in which animals come to respond to apreviously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus thatelicits an automatic response. 6. Know operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning is the learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior 7. Know positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Know how punishment and negative reinforcementdiffer. Positive Reinforcement – the presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior Negative Reinforcement – the removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probabilityof the behavior Positive Punishment – punishment in which the organism is administered a stimulus. Typically involves administering a punishment that the organism particularly wishes to avoid. Ex. Spanking Negative Punishment – punishment in which the organism experiences the removalof a stimulus. Typically involves the removal of a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience. Ex. Favorite toyPositive and Negative reinforcement differ in that positive reinforcement incorporates a stimulus such as spanking a child when they do wrong where as negative reinforcement incorporates the removal of a stimulus such as taking a toy away when a child does wrong. 8. Outline the evidence that supports latent learning. Latent learning is learning that isn’t directly observable.Evidence that supports latent learning is Edward Chace Tolman’s study of rats going through mazes. There were 3 groups of rats that were placed through a maze. The first group received cheese after each time through the maze. The second grouped received no cheese. The third group received cheese after 10 daysof doing the maze. The rats showed a large drop in number of errors after first reinforcer of cheese, showing they were learning the whole time yet didn’t show it. Also cognitive maps or mental representation of how physical space is organized, are also example of evidence that support latent learning. 9. Know observational learning (specifically as studied by Albert Bandura). Observational Learning is the learning by watching other people’s behavior and observing the resulting consequences. Albert Bandura specifically studied in research that demonstrated children could learn to act aggressively by watching aggressive role models. The study included a the Bobo doll in which children were asked to watch either an adult playing quietly with the doll or an adult beating the Bobo doll up. 10. Know insight learning. Understand how might this research challenge Thorndike’s assumptions.Insight learning is a type of learning or problem solving that happens all-of-a-sudden through understanding the relationships various parts of a problem rather than through trial and error.This research might challenge Thorndike’s assumption for Thorndike put forth the LAW OF EFFECT in which he believed If a response, in the presence of a stimulus,is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between the stimulus and response will be strengthened. With no reward, the rats never repeated until they were rewarded. Objectives: Chapter 10(Human Development)Pages 360-362, 371-389, 393-394.1. Contrast two experimental designs used by developmental psychologists, including factors to consider when using one design versus the other. Cross-sectional design – research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time (don’t control for cohort effects or effects due to the fact that sets of people who lived during one time period called cohorts, can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during different time period)Longitudinal design – research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time (negative is that they can be costly and time consuming)2. Describe brain development during infancy and childhood, and explain why adults are rarely able to retrieve memories that predate their third


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