New version page

FSU PSY 2012 - Chapter 9- Language

Documents in this Course
Exam III

Exam III

20 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

19 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

17 pages

DREAMS

DREAMS

1 pages

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

13 pages

Load more
Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 19 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

General Psych Final Study Guide Chapter 14 Personality- Personality = People’s typical ways of thinking, feeling and behaving. - Trait = Relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations. (Aggressiveness, being self-conscientiousness, etc.). - 2 Major ways to studying a personality: o Nomethic Approach = Approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals. o Idiographic Approach = Approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics & life history experiences w/in a person.- Molecular Genetic Study = Investigation that allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated w/ specific personality traits. - ID = Reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex & aggression.- Ego = Psyche’s executive & principle decision maker. - Superego = Our sense of morality.- Pleasure Principle = Tendency of the ID to strive for immediate gratification. - Reality Principle = Tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet. - Defense Mechanisms = Unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety.- Repression = Motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses. - Reaction – Formation = Transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite.- Projection = Unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others. - Sublimination = Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal. - Anal Stage = Psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training.- Social Learning Theory = Theorists who emphasize thinking as a cause of personality.- Reciprocal Determinism = Tendency for ppl to mutually influence each other’s behavior.- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) = Widely used structured personality test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders. - Face Validity = Extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring.- P.T Barnum Effect = Tendency of ppl to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate.-1. Describe how twin and adoption studies shed light on genetic and environmental influences on personality (text p. 541);- Because identical (monozygotic) twins are more similar genetically than fraternal (dizygotic) twins, a higher correlation of a trait among identical than fraternal twins – assuming that the environmental influences on both sets of twins are comparable – suggests a genetic influence. - Brought up together:o From 1 study, we can conclude that numerous personality traits (anxiety proneness, impulse control & traditionalism) are influenced by genetic factors. o In an identical twin study, the results say that nonshared environment plays an important role in personality. - Not brought up together:o 1st, identical twins not brought up together tend to be strikingly similar in personality traits and also far more similar than fraternal twins that weren’t brought up together. o According to the results, identical twins reared apart were about as similar to identical twins reared together.o This finding shows that a shared environment plays little or no role in the causes of adult personality.- The correlations between biological parents & their adopted-away children in their sociability levels are slightly higher than the correlations b/w adoptive parents & their adopted children even though the biological parents had essentially no environmental contact w/ their children after birth. - Researchers using twin & adoption studies have found that genes influence a variety of behaviors often associated w/ personality traits. (divorce, religiosity, watching TV, etc.). 2. Describe the core assumptions of psychoanalytic theory (text p. 545);- Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory rests on 3 assumptions:o Psychic Determinism = The assumption that all psychological events have a cause.o Symbolic Meaning = No action, no matter how trivial it seems, is meaningless. o Unconscious Motivation = We rarely understand what we do, although we always have explanations for our actions. 3. Describe key criticisms of psychoanalytic theory (text p. 552); - Unfalsifiablity – Critics have noted that many hypotheses derived from Freudian theory are difficult or impossible to refute. - Failed Predictions – Although much of Freudian theory is difficult to falsify, those portions of the theory that can be falsified often have been. o Freud said that kids who experienced harsh toilet training would grow up to be rigid & perfectionistic, but no association b/w toilet training practices & adult personality has been found. - Questionable Conception of the Unconscious – Research does not support the existence of the “Unconsciousness” (a place where sexual & aggressive energies & repressed memories) let alone tell us where it’s located. - Reliance on Unrepresentative Samples – Freud’s theories may possess limited generalizability bc most of his patients that he studied were upper-class Viennese women.- Flawed Assumption of Shared Environmental Influence – Behavior-genetic studies have shown shared environment plays a role in adult personality, contradicting a key proposition of Freudian theory.4. Describe trait models of personality including the big five (text p. 562);- Trait theorists aim to understand the structure and major traits of the personality. - The Big Five model = 5 traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures. o Openness to Experience – Open ppl tends to be intellectually curious & unconventional. o Conscientiousness – Conscientiousness ppl tend to be careful & responsible.o Extraversion – Extraverted ppl tend to be social & lively. o Agreeableness – These ppl then to be sociable & easy to get along with.o Neuroticism – Neurotic ppl tend to be tense & moody. - The Big Five predict important real world behavior:o High Conscientiousness, low Neuroticism are associated w/ successful job performance & good grades.o Extraversion has been positively correlated among salespersons. - The Big Five has been identified in China, Japan, Italy, Hungary & Turkey.o Openness to experience doesn’t emerge clearly in all cultures. o Individualism-Collectivism – Ppl from largely individualistic cultures like the US tend to focus on themselves & their personal goals, while those from largely collectivist cultures like Asia, tend to focus on their relations w/ others.- The Big Three Model can be an


View Full Document
Download Chapter 9- Language
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Chapter 9- Language and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 9- Language 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?