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FSU PSY 2012 - Unit 4 Social Psychology

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Wednesday, November 16, 2011Unit 4Social PsychologyThe scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to people.Think about=social cognitionInfluence=social influenceRelate= social relationsPrejudice: “prejudgment”An unjustifiable attitiude toward a group of people and its members.BeliefsStereotype:A generalized belief about a group of people.EmotionsHostility, envy, fear.ActionsDistriminationUnjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.Origins of PrejudiceJustifying social inequalitiesSocial divisionsIngroup (us) v. Outgroup (them)Outgroup homogenetity: they are all alikeIngroup bias:Tendency to favor your ingroup.Origins of PrejudiceEmotions-Fear and angerScapegoat theory- outlet for angerCategorization & generalization-Stererotyped beliefs are a by-product of how we cognitively simplify the world.CategorizationOther-race effectVivid casesJust-world phenomenonTypes of PrejudiceTypes:Overt-open, consciousSubtle-implicit, unconsciousRatesOvert prejudices have decreasedSublte prejudices rates are higherMonday, November 28, 2011Stanly Milgrems Experiment65 % of participants continued to shock the learner after (instructed to stop from learner).What do we learn?Good people can do bad thingsSituation plays important role in behavior.Influences on ObedienceAuthority of experimenterDeferment of responsibility ( authority held responsible)Location of experimenterLocation on Victimif learner in same room as teacher (40% continued to shock)Disobedient peersSocial influence: ConformityAdjusting behavior to fit a group standardMay BeBadIndifferentGoodConformity: AschConfederate- someone hired by researcher to (act).First two trials are unanimousOn third trial, confederates all select the wrong line.37% of the time participant would conform to the groupanswer was obviously wrong.Reasons for ConformingNormative social influencePeople conform because they fear social rejection or to gain social approval.Informational Social InfluencePeople conform because they accept the opinions of others.Conformity Updates:Factors that increase conformityFeeling incompetentGroup has >/= 3 people and is unanimousYou admire the group’s statusYou are being observed by your group membersYou are in a collectivist cultureMore likely to conformGroup ProcessesSocial LoafingLost in the “crowd”Social loafingThe tendency of people to exert less effort in group tasts.Why?People think their contribution is unimportantLess individual participationReduced or Eliminated when:People you know in the groupThe group is highly valuedThe task in meaningful or uniqueSocial FacilitationSocial facilitationThe tendency of the presence of others to enhance performance on simple tasks and impair performance on complex tasksWhy?Simple tasks-confidentComplex tasks-nervousGroup influenceDeindividuationLoss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster bothArousalanonymityWednesday, November 16, 2011Unit 4Social Psychology- The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to people.o Think about=social cognitiono Influence=social influenceo Relate= social relationsPrejudice: “prejudgment”An unjustifiable attitiude toward a group of people and its members.BeliefsStereotype:- A generalized belief about a group of people.Emotionso Hostility, envy, fear.ActionsDistrimination- Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.Origins of Prejudice- Justifying social inequalities- Social divisionso Ingroup (us) v. Outgroup (them)o Outgroup homogenetity: they are all alikeo Ingroup bias: Tendency to favor your ingroup.oOrigins of Prejudice- Emotions-Fear and angero Scapegoat theory- outlet for anger- Categorization & generalization-Stererotyped beliefs are a by-product of how we cognitively simplify the world.- Categorization- Other-race effect- Vivid cases- Just-world phenomenonTypes of PrejudiceTypes:- Overt-open, conscious- Subtle-implicit, unconsciousRates- Overt prejudices have decreased- Sublte prejudices rates are higherDifficult to measureFriday, November 18, 2011 Social Relations: Altruism o Unselfish regard for welfare and others Altruims: Bystander effecto When will intervention happen? First, you notice the incident  interpret (emergency or not?) ifso, you assume responsibility  attempt to help  What might prevent the assuming of responsibility?o Bystander effect: The tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.  “someone else will help” Altruism: Bystander effecto Less likely to help with others present o Why? Interpretation of the incident  Responsibility  Factors that increase interventiono In a good mood o Empathy – victim similar to uso Alone or when les than 5 other people are aroundo Not in a hurry or preoccupied o Recently seen someone being helpful o Victim obviously needs/deserves help o Small town or rural areao Feel guilty What is obedience?o Obedience: behavior following the rules or commands of one in authority Extreme Obedienceo Natzis in Germany  Social Influence: Obedienceo Controversial experiments Stanley Milgram Yale University (60-70’s)o Procedure “learner” and “teacher” teacher gives test on word pairs learner receives shocks for wrong answers wMonday, November 28, 2011Stanly Milgrems Experiment- 65 % of participants continued to shock the learner after (instructed to stop from learner).- What do we learn?o Good people can do bad thingso Situation plays important role in behavior. Influences on Obedience Authority of experimentero Deferment of responsibility ( authority held responsible) Location of experimenter Location on Victim o if learner in same room as teacher (40% continued to shock) Disobedient peers Social influence: Conformity Adjusting behavior to fit a group standard- May Beo Bado Indifferent o GoodConformity: AschConfederate- someone hired by researcher to (act). First two trials are unanimous On third trial, confederates all select the wrong line.- 37% of the time participant would conform to the groupo answer was obviously wrong.Reasons for Conforming Normative social influence- People conform because they fear social rejection or to gain social approval.  Informational Social Influence - People conform because they accept the opinions of others.Conformity Updates: Factors that increase conformity- Feeling incompetent - Group has >/= 3


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