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FSU PSY 2012 - Psychological Disorders

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Exam III

Exam III

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Exam 2

Exam 2

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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DREAMS

DREAMS

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Chapter 6

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Psychological Disorders/ Abnormal PsychologyDSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders• Explains symptoms of disorders, not causes• Provides a reliable measure for diagnosticians• Major Domains of Information  only really need to know first twoo Axis I: Clinical Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Attention Principle disorder that needs immediate attention• i.e. Major depressive episode, exacerbation of sz, flare-up of a panic disorder• Brings the person “through the office door” Substance disorders, eating disorders, sexual disorders, sleep disorders, Sz, mood disorders, etc..o Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Personality disorders – a collection of traitso Axis III: General Medical Conditionso Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problemso Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning• Qualifications:o Six months of anxiety and worryo Inability to control worry Cannot get rid of their anxiety even if they wanted too Six months with 3+ symptoms Restlessness Constant fatigue Distraction Irritable Muscle Tension Sleep problems – falling/staying asleep; restless/unsatisfying sleepo Pervasive – not confined to features of an Axis I disorderGeneral Anxiety Disorder – excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things that is disproportionate to the actual source of worry• About 3% of populationo Spend about 60% of day worrying, compared to 16% of normal population• Feel irritable, on edge, have trouble sleeping, considerable body tension/fatigue• 1/3rd suffering develop it following a stressful life event• More likely in female than malePanic Attack (with agoraphobia) – being unable to escape the situation• Frequently occurs with panic attacksPanic Attack (Unexpected, Situational, Situationally predisposed• Unexpected – the disorder “comes out of the blue” without warning and for no discernable reason• Situational – situations in which an individual always has an attacko i.e. upon entering a tunnel• Situationally Predisposed – situations in which an individual is likely to have a panic attack, but doesn’t alwayso i.e. an individual who sometimes has attacks while driving• Panic Disorder – when an individual suffers at least two unexpected panic attacks, followed by at least 1 months of having concern of another. o Also prone to situationally predisposed attacks.o Frequency and severity varies Repeated attacks for weeks/random, short, severe attacks, etc…Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – i.e. “combat fatigue” (WWI), or “shell shock”• Characterized by:o Experienced threat, death or serious injury and response involved intense reactiono Trauma experienced: Reliving the experience Psychological and physiological reaction to cueso Avoidance of stimulio Increased arousalo More than 1 montho Disrupts functioning• Function of 3 areas of the brain may have been alteredo Prefrontal cortex – fearo Amygdala – threat detectiono Hippocampus – memories/flashbacks • Acute or chronic• Delayed onset• Who can get it?o Anyone who was a victimo Survivors of violent actso Car accidents, disasterso Combat veteranso People that experienced a deatho Child abuse victimsPhobia• According to DSM – IVo Persistent, excessive or unreasonable fear in response to a cue (flying, heights, injections, SPIDERS, etc)o Exposure to cue creates anxiety response to attacko Personal recognition of unreasonable nature of fearo Avoids fear at all costso Interferes with normal functioning• Types:o Animal Arachnophobia – fear of spiders (ugh)o Natural world (storms, water, etc.)o Blood-injectiono Situational (planes, small spaces) Agoraphobia – fear that you won’t be able to escape any given situation (WILL ASK ON EXAM) Acrophobia – fear of heights. Vertigo – the movieo Other (illness, choking, sounds, etc.) Coulrophobia – fear of clownsObsessive Compulsive Disorder – axis I: anxiety disorder• Obsessions:o Thoughts, impulses, imageso Exceeds real life problemso Attempts of suppressiono Rec. the personal construction of obsessionso Ex: Concern with evenness of exactness Persistent fear of getting sick Fear of blurting out obscenities Hoarding• Compulsionso Repetitive behaviorso Aim to prevent or reduce stress of a situationo Ex: Washing hands repetitively Repeating ABC, 123 in your head Excessive showering• At some point, the person recognizes the O/C’s are excessive or unreasonableo Does not apply to children• Marked distress – indicates that OCD symptoms hinder the person’s ability to live a normal lifeo Social situations/relationships effected by symptomso Normal routine Could take an hour to fold that one towel in the perfect wayo School/work• Several theories about cause – none confirmedo 20% of OCD patients have tics, so linked to Tourette syndrome, but link unclear• Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) can help diagnose OCD and track progress• If another Axis I disorder is present, the content of the OC’s is not restricted to ito Eating disorders often associated with obsession of foodo Substance abuse is often associated with preoccupation with drugsAxis I – V of the DSM• Major Domains of Information  only really need to know first twoo Axis I: Clinical Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Attention Principle disorder that needs immediate attention• i.e. Major depressive episode, exacerbation of sz, flare-up of a panic disorder• Brings the person “through the office door” Substance disorders, eating disorders, sexual disorders, sleep disorders, Sz, mood disorders, etc..o Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Personality disorders – a collection of traitso Axis III: General Medical Conditionso Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problemso Axis V: Global Assessment of FunctioningDepression• Depressive Episodeo Mood/affect Depressed mood  decreased interest or pleasureo Behavioral Sleep disturbance Weight change or appetite disturbance Loss of energy Psychomotor changeso Cognitive Worthlessness or inappropriate guilt Concentration difficulties or indecision Thoughts of death or suicide• Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) – distress/impairment for at least two weeks• Most prevalent in adolescents and adultso Women: 5-9% point prev.


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