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FSU PSY 2012 - Study Guide for Exam 3: General Psychology

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Exam 2

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Chapter 1

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DREAMS

DREAMS

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Study Guide for Exam 3: General Psychology Instructions: Key concepts and ideas will be listed below. This will cover the majority of the material that you will be tested on. Most of this material will have been covered in lecture. Material from the book may also appear on the exam. However, understand that this study guide may not contain every concept that you’ll need to know for the exam and it will be necessary to review the readings and your notes.CH. 13 PersonalityPsychoanalysis – developed by Bruer and Anna O.- Freud jumped on their research team. He began with the mindset that every physical ailment had a physical cause but after a few patients, realized some of these patients (mostly middle aged women) had mental causes to the physical ailments- Basic tenets of psychoanalysiso A person’s development is mainly determined by events in early childhoodo Behavior, cognition, and experience are largely determined by irrational drives Those drives are largely unconsciouso Conflicts between conscious and unconscious (repressed) material can result in mental disturbances such as neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression…. Etc.- The Unconscious Mindo Conscious is your current awarenesso Preconscious are the things immediately below consciousness that are retrievableo Unconscious is what is not typically available w/o some type of retrieval  What freud says is driving personality Most are negative influences and typically sexual- 3 assumptions of psychoanalysiso Psychic Determinism – all psychological events have a cause Actions are not free We are at the whim of inner forceso Symbolic Meaning – everything has an underlying meaningo Unconscious Motivation – the majority of motivation lies beneath the surfaceId, Ego, Superego – Freud’s theory- Id – The impulseo “I want it NOW”. Impulses. Things we want to doo The energetic one.o ADHD student (lots of ID. Cannot control ID)- Super ego – Morality/ The parent roleo NO. Think about morals. Think about societal standards. Think about how you’ll be judged.o Consequences of behavioro Complete opposite of Id.- Coexistence of Id and super ego will be difficult to work together- Ego – The decision maker/ the mediatoro Mediator of Id and Superego. o How do we want ourselves to be seen and thought of by other people?o Does the best it can with Id to be able to fulfill desires and impulses but still be thought well upon and thought positively by othersFreud’s Personality Structure – personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between id and superego- Id/Ego/SuperegoFree Association – Freud’s from Breuer’s hypnotic method- A means of tapping into the unconscious – by leading what the person is saying he thought that he could get from the associated comment into the unconscious- Patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session- No censorship of thoughts- Helps a patient learn more about what they think/feel with no judgment and with curiosity/acceptance- Breaks down the barrier of the unconscious and conscious mindStages of psychosexual developmentStage Focus ExampleOral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth –sucking, biting, chewing Nipple sucking associating with cigarettesAnal (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for controlToilet training associated with being obsessed with controlPhallic (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelingsCoping with incest feelings and fixation is sexual fixationLatency (6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings Sex crazy takes a breakGenital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests Sexually becoming mature and interacting sexually- At each stage, we focus on the dev. Of certain erogenous (something)o Oral (mouth)o Anal (bodily functions)- Early dev. Is motivated by getting the stimulation for these areas in certain stageso Phalic and person is concerned about genitalso Every given stage has its sexual issues to resolve and later in life, this is ultimately the stuff that’s getting stuffed down into unconscious and motivating behavior- Freud really thought that this population (people of hysteria [hysterectomy]) was very sexually repressed and had sexual feelings and desires and that because of the culture and women, they couldn’t get these out. Desires really repressed and to a large degree, the reason a lot of these physical ailments were happening. All the pent up stuff is at the root of these pathological behaviorsNeo-Freudians – the escape from sexuality as driving force- Increased optimism about life and personality changeo Freud wrote that the goal of psychoanalysis is to turn neurotic misery into ordinary, everyday happiness- Alfred Adler- Erik Erikson- Karen Horney- Carl JungAlfred Adler- Crippled as a child- Agreed with Freud about childhood tensions BUT…. - Deviated from sexual explanations and focused more on social tensions in childhood, insteado A child struggles with an inferiority during growth and strives for superiority and power Striving for superiority/inferiority complexKaren Horney- Rejected the sexual drives of personality in favor of a social tension view for personality formation (like Alder)o Childhood anxiety is caused by the child’s helplessness triggered our desire for love and security- Discussed gender issueso Women’s sense of inferiority because of dependence on meno Pioneer in the discipline of feminine psychiatryo Feminine Psychology – Her papers between 1922 and 1937 She felt cultures and societies worldwide encouraged women to be dependent of men for love, care, wealth, etc Women typically only gain value through her children and the wider family Men and Women’s motive to be ingenious and productive- Women, through becoming pregnant and giving birth- Men, through work or some other field bc they cannot give birth Self-awareness is a part of becoming a better, stronger, richer human being (very important)Erik Erikson- Agreed with Freud’s unconscious mind but said there is more than the repressed thoughts and feelings and sexual drives- Psychosocial DevelopmentErikson’s Stage TheoryAge Conflict Resolution or “Virtue” Culmination in Old AgeInfancy (0-1 year) Basic trust vs. mistrust Hope Appreciation of interdependence and relatednessEarly Childhood (1-3) Autonomy vs. shame Will Acceptance of the cycle of


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