Berkeley ELENG 40 - Lecture 35 (16 pages)

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Lecture 35



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Lecture 35

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Pages:
16
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
Eleng 40 - Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits
Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Documents

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EE40 Lecture 35 Prof Chang Hasnain 12 5 07 Reading Ch 7 Supplementary Reader EE40 Fall 2006 Slide 1 Prof Chang Hasnain Week 15 OUTLINE Need for Input Controlled Pull Up CMOS Inverter Analysis CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristic Combinatorial logic circuits Logic Binary representations Combinatorial logic circuits Reading Chap 7 7 5 Supplementary Notes Chapter 4 EE40 Fall 2006 Slide 2 Prof Chang Hasnain 1 Digital Circuits Introduction Analog signal amplitude is continuous with time Digital signal amplitude is represented by a restricted set of discrete numbers Binary only two values are allowed to represent the signal High or low i e logic 1 or 0 Digital word Each binary digit is called a bit A series of bits form a word Byte is a word consisting of 8 bits Advantages of digital signal Digital signal is more resilient to noise can more easily differentiate high 1 and low 0 Transmission Parallel transmission over a bus containing n wires Faster but short distance internal to a computer or chip Serial transmission transmit bits sequentially Longer distance EE40 Fall 2006 Slide 3 Prof Chang Hasnain Analog vs Digital Signals Most but not all observables are analog think of analog vs digital watches but the most convenient way to represent transmit information electronically is to use digital signals think of telephony Analog to digital A D digital to analog D A conversion is essential and nothing new think of a piano keyboard EE40 Fall 2006 Slide 4 Prof Chang Hasnain 2 Analog Signal Example Microphone Voltage Voltage with normal piano key stroke Voltage with soft pedal applied 25 microvolt 440 Hz signal 60 40 20 0 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 40 V in microvolts V in microvolts 50 microvolt 440 Hz signal 60 40 20 0 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 40 60 60 t in milliseconds t in milliseconds V in microvolts 50 microvolt 220 Hz signal 60 40 20 0 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Analog signal representing piano key A below middle C 220 Hz 40 60 t in milliseconds EE40 Fall



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