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FSU REL 1300 - Study Guide for Final Exam

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Study Guide for Final Exam: Know these terms and you’ll ace the exam.Primal Religions/Native American• Common features of primal religions• Oral tradition - no writing, requires memory• Animism - all living things have spirits (plants, animals, humans)• Shamanism - special ability to contact the spirit world to negotiate with spirits; strong in hunting and gathering societies• How do shamans enter trances to visit the spirit world? - after having a terrible illness• Wakan Tonka – the great mystery, name of the high god in the plains Indian religion.• Quanah Parker -!spread the Peyote Way• Native American Church• Black Elk -!the Oglala Sioux medicine man, he!passed along his wisdom tradition• Most common religion of American Indians today - ChristianityHinduism:• Samsara- the whirl of birth and death and rebirth• Bhakti- Sanskrit "yoga" meaning union; the way of realizing the divine loving devotion.• The Vedas – earliest hindu scriptures.• Atman- soul. Individual conscious self• Krishna is an incarnation of whom?- Vishnu• Moksha- liberation from some sorrow.• Swastika- auspicious sign. “All is well”. A goods luck symbol.• Shiva- god who is the destroyer.• Kali- goddess who drinks blood. Also a destroyer. Represents dissolution of all limitations. People sing songs of love to her.• Brahma- the generator, creator.• Vishnu- is god in the aspect of sustainer. Operator. Preserver.• Ganesha- son of shiva. God with an elephants head. Considered the remover of obstacles.• Bhagavad Gita- song of the god, scripture. Sometimes called the bible of Hinduism.• Mantra- sanscrit word that is a formula of words or sounds that are repeated. Sometimes can’t be translated.• Mandala- a visual diagram that is gazed upon for meditation. Usually concentric. Radially symmetrical.• Brahman- is the absolute divine Reality• Sanskrit- the ancient language of Hindu; Indo-European• Indus River Valley- the valley that is the home of ancient civilizations where Hinduism began.Buddhism:• Theravada- first school of Buddhism.• Nirvana2- the Buddhist term for liberation. Third of the 4 noble truths.• The Three Marks of Existence are0 º Suffering1 º Impermanence2 º No eternal self• The Buddhist doctrine of Interdependent Origination- everything is mutually connected. Nothing independently exists• Bodhisattva- means enlightened being• Four Noble Truths- the basic central teachings of Buddhism. 8 fold path is howto go about becoming free• Satori- term from Japanese zen Buddhism. Moment of awakening (epiphany)• Sangha- means community• Karma- what goes around comes around; action and reaction• Desire is the root of human sufferingTaoism:• Lao Tzu- founder of Taoism. Wrote central scripture.• Tao Teh Ching- central scripture of Taoism. ***Flowing water is a symbol that is recurring.• Yin and yang- complimentary forces that create and bring order to the universe.• School of Taoism the practices cultivation of sexual energyConfucianism:• Jen- principle of love; compassion• Shu- the principle of reciprocity. Do unto others as you would to you• The Analects- teachings of Confucius.• I-Ching!is the Chinese book of oracles associated with Confucius. ***TRUEZoroastrianism:• Ahura Mazda- their name for the one true god.• Zarathustra- real name of GodJudaism:• Torah- Hebrew word that means law; first 5 books of old testament• Messhiach- means the anointed oneChristianity:• Meaning of2Christos – “the anointed one”• Emperor Constantine of Rome - moved the capital of Rome to the east. Legalized Christianity. Counsel of NicaeaIslam:• Abraham is patriarch of Judaism!and!Islam. (and Christianity)• Khadija- wife of Mohammed.• Allah- Arabic name for god.• Kaaba- cubicle building at the heart of Mecca.• Hajj- pilgrimage required once in your life.• Shari’a- religious law• Hadith- reports on the sayings and doings of Mohammed.• Quran- holy scripture of the Muslims• Ali, the Fourth of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (successor) -!Ali was sonin law, son, and first cousin of MuhammadMartian religion:• Grok!- You become a part of it.!To drink, to eat, to understand• What's the motif that means the power of gentle strength?- flowing

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