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FSU REL 1300 - Terms to Know (Hinduism)

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Terms to Know (Hinduism)• Orthodoxy: “proper belief,” correct thoughts or beliefs• Orthopraxy: “proper practice,” right actions• Emic: (internal) traditional words• Etic: (eternal) “religion,” outside the universe, mind-set• Varnashramadharma: duty depending on Varna and Asharma• Varna: cast where you were born, “heart of cast”• Ashrama: stage of life, determines duties• Dharma: duty based on your cast and station in life• 1. Brahmacarya: stage of life that begins around puberty and goes till age 25- “Student stage”- Celibacy practiced- Goal: devotion to teacher• 2. Grhasta: stage between ages 25- 50- “Householder”- Spend most of life here- Marriage & children- Goal: kama & artha• 3. Vanaprastha: stage of ages 50-75- “Force-dweller”- Retirement- Grandparents-withdraw from life after grandbabies grown up- Goal: dharma• 4. Sannyasa: stage ages 75+- Given up in worldly affairs- Not involved anymore with family- Funeral: dummy- Wander off in wilderness- Cycle of birth and death (Samsura)- Goal: moksha• Brahmins: priests, thinkers that come from Purusha’s head and read Veda• Purusharthas: aims of man, desires• 1. Kama: scripture of desire, sexual desire and/or desire for sensual things• 2. Artha: political success or monetary success• 3. Dharma: religious duty to Gods• 4. Moksha: released from cycle of birth and death, break free from all attachments• Brahma:- Creator- 4 faces with beards- Godfather- Knowledgeable• Vishnu:- Most popular, preserver of Trinity- Protector from evil- Rests on snake (Shesha)• Avatar(a): figure that comes down to earth in different human forms (Vishnu has 10 avatars)• Shiv(a):- The destroyer- Grey skinned man because puts ash on his skin- Ends life to begin new cosmic cycle- Washes away sins with the River of Ganga coming out of his head• Devi: goddesses that have endless forms and all carrying weapons• Veda: Aryan development of religion that keeps world running• 1. Rig: oldest of four, original that makes sacrifices• 2. Sama: hymns for chanting • 3.Yajur: notes added to perform sacrifice, what you are physically doing• 4.Atharva: “magic” spells & rituals for good• Upanishads:- Tells of Vedanta (culmination of Vedas)- Teacher to student- Theme: sacrifice has become internalized• Aryan: nomads, horsemen that came from Kazakhstan to India and are ancestors of Endo-European• Itihasa: category of Hindu literature/ poetry; “thus it was” or “history"• 1. Ramayana: shorter poem that is another story of people of historical events• 2. Mahabharatha: longest poem in literature that is tory of the people- Great India history story about Great War 450 BC- Longest poem in literature that is Story of the people• Rama: avatar of Vishnu, main character of Ramayana of Valmiki story• Sita: “furrow,” female beauty that comes from the earth• Hanuman: advisor to Monkey King and becomes devoted to Rama; jumps across ocean from India to Lanka to save Sita• Kauravas: one of the set of cousins with 100 brothers that become greedy and want the throne• Pandavas: second set of cousins that is 5 brothers and includes the gambling brother• Krishna: brother that persuades his brother Arjuna to fight because he says its his duty• Arjuna: one of brothers in Bhagavad Gita story that says he cannot kill his family• Bhagavad Gita: well known scripture, small part of Mahabharatha• Yoga: system by which one becomes joined to the Divine• 1. Karma: giving up fruits of action to the Divine• 2. Jnana: working to connect to Divine by knowledge • 3. Bhakti: yoga of devotion & worship to some Divine• Samkhya: oldest school, duelist philosophy, universe composed of:• 1. Purusha- Male- Pure detached spirit- “Does” nothing, simply the forces of cosmic existence• 2. Prakriti:- Female- Nature, comprises all the physical matter of universe- Divided into Gunas • A. Sattva: - Color white- Knowledge, spirituality, purity• B. Rajas:- Color red- Vigor, action, power, movement, internal fire, greed, lust, love • C. Tamas:- Color black- Decay, liturgy, not active, sleep• Gunas: categories of Prakriti divided into that need to be balanced to stay healthy in life• Vedanta: culmination of Vedas, group of philosophies seeking the relationship between the atman and brahman• 1. Advaita: the atman and brahman are identical • 2. Vishishta Dvaita: the atman and brahman are related, but different • 3. Dvaita: the atman and brahman are completely separate• Karma: action; giving up fruits of action to the Divine because everything is a sacrifice• Bhakti: drives Hindus in life = devotion- Form of universal god- Common to express through song or performance• Atman: the individual soul• Brahman: absolute reality/ God• Puja: how you worship, form of arthi• Jati: thousands of casts that fit under the VarnasBuddhism Terms to Know• Shramana Movements: reaction to Brahmin-dominance in standard Hinduism• Siddhartha Gautama/Shakyamuni: man who is the child of queen Maya and became the first Buddha and spread Buddhism teachings• The Four Sights: An old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a renunciant (monk) • The Middle Way: path to enlightenment, too much tightness s not the way to live• The Buddha: the Awaken One, gave the first sermon- 4 Noble Truths• Dharma: cosmetic order, teachings of the Buddha• Sangha: community of Buddhists, “church”• Samsara: cycle of birth and death• Nirvana: eliminate all attachments, a place of absolute• The Four Noble Truths: Suffering, the Cause of Suffering, the Cessation of Suffering, and the Path to the Cessation of Suffering• The Eightfold Path: Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action (5 Precepts), Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration• Anatman: no self, idea that you do no exist or no internal essence• Codependent Origination/ Dependent Coorigination: everything has a cause and is all linked• The 5 Skandhas• Theravada: - Big on historical Buddha- have to believe in his teachings to attain enlightenment- Older of the 2 main schools- Dedicated to maintaining nirvana• Arhat/Arahat: attained enlightenment with the help of the Buddhist teachings• Mahayana:- The “greater” vehicle- Believe to be superior- Most dominant form of Buddhism• Emptiness/Shunyata:- Ultimate truth- Everything is an illusion- The 4 noble truths lead to believing in this-


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