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FSU REL 1300 - Study Guide

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REL 1300 STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM Baptists - The Scriptures (OT&NT) as rule of faithNo over-arching hierarchyBaptism of adults/mature believers rather than infantsFull immersionGrew in US after the First Great Awakening (1740-1743)Regional split in 1845 over the issue of slaveryResulted in Northern and Southern BaptistsCaliph - Successor to the Prophet Muhammad, was a religious leader.7th Day Adventists - Predecessor: William MillerPredicted return of Jesus in March 1843, March 1844, & October 1844Founder: Ellen G. Harmon WhiteBeliefsSaturday SabbathReject innate immortality of the soulFollow OT dietary lawsMany are conscientious objectorsOppose the teaching of biological evolutionSevener Shi’ism – sect of Islam. Became known as "Seveners" because they believe that Ismā'īl ibn Jaʻfar was the seventh and the last Imām (hereditary leader of the Muslim community). They believed his son, Muħammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum, would return and bring about an age of justice as al-Mahdi. Yeshiva - Jewish school provided for men to study scripture and Jewish lawAshura - the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Mourning of Muharram. It is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10Muharram in the year 61. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrates that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, “What is this?” They said, “This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day.” So he fasted on this day and told the people to fastIconoclast controversy - In 726, after a major volcanic eruption in the middle of the Aegean Sea, Emperor Leo III had his officers tear down the great golden icon of Christ at the gateway of the imperial palace and replace it with a cross. Many people protested this, and thus the iconoclastic controversy was born. Leo ordered all icons destroyed and the ban lasted until 787 CE. It was revived later in 815 and 843 CE. This impulse was born out of a fear that monotheistic Christianity was becoming too influenced by local folk religious traditions and anti-intellectual sentiments coming out of the Balkans. There was a fear that Christianity, especially in the East, which was now facing pressures from Islamic Arabs, was becoming morally and intellectually inferior to the Arabs.Calvinism - John Calvin (1509-1564 CE)Took Luther’s suggestions furtherGod is absolutely sovereignHumans are sinful and powerless to achieve salvation on their ownNothing but the grace of God can save a personPredestination – God has preordained who is damned & saved and there’s nothing people cando about itPresbyterianism—English and American Reformed Calvinism Church - a building used for religious activities particularly worship services. The term in its architectural sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings but can be used by other religions.Council of Nicea - The council settled, to some degree, the debate within the Early Christian communities regarding the divinity of Christ. This idea of the divinity of Christ, along with the idea of Christ as a messenger from God (The Father), had long existed in various parts of the Roman empire. The divinity of Christ had also been widely endorsed by the Christian community in the otherwise pagan city of Rome. The council affirmed and defined what it believed to be the teachings of the Apostles regarding who Christ is: that Christ is the one true God in deity with the FatherHanifs - Meccan Arabs (Pious ones) who concurred with Jews and Christians in their ethical monotheism‘abbasid/umayyad dynasty - The first dynasty of Arab caliphs (661-750). Its capital was Damascus.Orthodox Judaism - Torah Judaism, is the approach to the religious Judaism which adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts.Incarnation - The eternal word of God is embodied in the flesh of Jesus during his earthly life. THere were two basic formulations of this: "The word became flesh" and "the word dwells in the flesh" of JesusTemple – Religious place to worship, perform sacrifice; priestly classJewish Mysticism - Merkabah (“chariot/throne”) MysticismEcstatic journey to heavenly throne room Focused on:Shekinah (“presence” [of God])Anthropomorphic conception of GodMagic Spells and MotifsApocalyptic and Revelatory WritingsFiqh - the human interpretation of the Islamic laws Synagogue - Lit.: “Gathering together”Origin: Exilic periodMany synagoguesMeeting placeTorah study PrayerSunni Muslims - The Sunni branch believes that the first four caliphs--Mohammed's successors--rightfully took his place as the leaders of Muslims. They recognize the heirs of thefour caliphs as legitimate religious leaders. These heirs ruled continuously in the Arab world until the break-up of the Ottoman Empire following the end of the First World War Diaspora – dispersion of the Jews outside IsraelYom Kippur - Day of Atonement”. Solemn day, strict fasting.Ramadan - the ninth month of the Islamic calendar;[1] Muslims worldwide observe this as a month of fasting. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.Documentary hypothesis - proposes that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) was derived from originally independent, parallel and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the current form by a series of redactors (editors). 1.The Yahwist source (J)2.The Elohist source (E)3.The Deuteronomic source (D)4.The Priestly sourcedietary laws - any of the laws dealing with permitted foods, food preparation and combinations, and the utensils and dishes coming into contact with foodJihad - a holy war waged on behalf of Islam as a religious dutyMaccabean Revolt - Seleucids came in to Jerusalem and made their temple a cult place, disregarding the Jewish religion. A group of fighters fought the Seleucids, and recaptured Jerusalem and expanded its boundariesScholasticism – refers to Martin Luther’s view on the church; the application of the most rigorous appliances of logic to the formulation and


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