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FSU REL 1300 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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TermsDates and PlacesNameConceptsREL1300 – Exam 1 Study GuideTerms• Ahimsa o Means non-harm, non-violenceo In Jainism, it is one the mahavratas, or a great vow that is accepted by everyone who takes up the life of a Jaina ascetic. o It is the first vow and is considered to be the weightiesto Forbids all involvement with the world and ensures that no action is undertaken spontaneously without restrainto Total and unconditional – no harm through speech, action, or thoughto Cannot prepare their own meals, cannot walk on grass, cannot flush toilets or use electricity • Ajiva o In Jainism, means non-soul o Is a substance without conscious and consists of five types. o Is thoroughly enmeshed with jiva (soul)• Alchemical Daoismo Daoists who were searching for a way to become immortal • Amaterasuo Shintoo The Sun goddess – the female Kami o Born from the left eye of Izanagi o Becomes the primary deity associated with the imperial family • Amitabha Buddhao Infinite light or infinite life Buddhao Took 48 vows, one of which was to establish a heavenly region – the “Pure” land – into which all beings who so desired could be reborn. o Vowed that he would strive to become a completely enlightened Buddha on the condition that thereafter he could continue to help all living beings towards liberation • Analects o Part of the Confucian classics in China • Anatman o One of three characteristics of existence in Buddhism o Means no-self o Draws attention to the psychological implications of the existential impermanence o Buddha denies the existence of a self o There is no I or mine o Does not mean there is no person or personality • Arjuna o Warrior in the Bhagavad Gita o Becomes distressed at the thought of fighting his own kin and throws down his weapons o Is instructed by Krishna on the nature of God and the human soul and how to reach liberation • Atheism o The theory or belief that gods or a god does not exist • Atman o In Hinduism, is the human soul o Counterpart to Brahman• Aum Shinrikyoo New religious movement in Japan that is responsible for the sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway system that killed 13 people and injured more than a thousando Prime example of the power of a charismatic holy man with an apocalyptic message can exert over disaffected young people • Avalokiteshvarao Each Dalai Lama is said to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara• Bhagavad Gita o A section of the Mahabharata epic recounting of a conversation between Krishna and Arjuna in which Krishna explains the nature of God and the human soul • Bhakti o Loving devotion to a deity seen as a gracious being who enters the world for the benefit of humans • Bodhisattva o In Theravada, a being who is on the way to enlightenment or Buddhahood but has not yet achieved ito In Mahayana, a celestial being who forgoes nirvana in order to save others• Brahmao A creator god in Hinduism • Brahman o The world- soul o Sometimes understood in impersonal terms • Brahmin o A member of the priest classo Associated with Hinduism • Buddha o “The awakened one”o “The enlightened one”• Buddhism o The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth.• Daoo Either the "way" or the sense of the path taken by followers of a particular religion• Dao De Jing o Classic of the Way and Power or Futureo Also known as the Laozio Speaks of the universal, all-encompassing Dao as indefinable• Deo Means virtue in Chinese • Diaspora o After African religious traditions were carried to the Americas slaves developed new syncretic religions with elements of Christianity o Saints were identified with specific African deities • Digambara o Sky-clad Jainso Message of restraint o Embody the principal of renunciation • Durga o The warrior aspect of the Hindu goddess Parvati (the wife of Shiva)o Depicted with a smiling countenance and a handful of weapons • Filial Piety o Confucian practiceo Respecting your parents • Ganesh o The elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvatio Probably the most beloved god in Hinduism o Seen as a remover of all obstacles and hindranceso He is the god people look to in difficult situations• Ghost Danceo Originated by the Wakova o Proper practice of the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region• Guanyin o The Buddhist bodhisattva of compassion who sees and hears the suffering of sentient beingso Represent by a female figure o Daoist figure often represented in Chinese Shrines • Heo Means harmony in Chinese• Henotheism o Belief and worship of a single god while excepting other deities that may be worshipped• Hinayana o In Buddhism, means lesser vehicle o Early school of Buddhismo Earliest system of the Buddhist doctrine • Hinduism o The common religion of India, based upon the religion of the originalAryan settlers as expounded and evolved in the Vedas, theUpanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc., having an extremely diversifiedcharacter with many schools of philosophy and theology, manypopular cults, and a large pantheon symbolizing the many attributes ofa single god.• I Ching o Divination system with 64 hexagrams • Izanagi o Part of the peaceful side of the primordial Kami coupleo Father of sun goddess• Izanami o Part of the peaceful side of the primordial Kami coupleo Wife of Izanagi • Jiva o In Jainism, eternal soul/consciousness o All living beings are endowed with Jiva • Jnanao In Hinduism, knowledge acquired through meditation and study as a means of reaching Brahman • Junzi o A person of authoritative behavior, translated to gentleman, implying the virtues of the upper class, a superior person, or one of virtue and exceptional character.• Kali o Evil Hindu deity with many arms• Kami o Spirits that are associated with a variety of natural phenomenao There are over 8 million.o Found in Japan • Kannon o The Japanese bodhisattva for compassion o Usually depicted as femaleo Alleviates sufferingo Popular with women and warriors • Karma o The energy of the individual’s past thoughts and actions, good and bado It determines rebirth within the samsara o Good karma is also called merit • Krishna o An incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu


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