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FSU REL 1300 - Study Guide

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• REL1300 Final Study Guide- Ley• Anatman - Literally means "not self." In contrast to the Hindu concept of atman, Buddhists do not believe that there is an essential self that moves from one body to another as we are reincarnated.• Arhat - one who has become enlightened; the ideal type for Theravada Buddhism• Atman - The eternal self, which the Upanishads identify with Brahman; often lowercase: the eternal Self or soul on an individual that is reincarnated from one body to the next and is ultimately identified with Atman.• Asceticism - the doctrine that through renunciation of worldly pleasures it is possible to achieve a high spiritual or intellectual state• Bodhisattva - A buddha to be, either in the present life or in a future life; in the Mahayana tradition, all individuals should aspire to be Buddhas, hence the bodhisattva is the highest human role; some future Buddhas can be reborn as deities.• Buddha - Literally,one who has 'awakened' ended Krmic bondage, and will no longer be reborn; one who will enter nirvana.• Guru Granth Sahib - Holy scripture of Sikhism, which has the sayings and teachings of the ten Sikh Gurus.• Jati - (Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India• Karma - (Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation• Khalsa - the group of initiated Sikhs to which devout orthodox Sikhs are ritually admitted at puberty• Krishna - 8th and most important avatar of Vishnu• Mahabarata - one of the great epics of India, reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryan Kings worked to control Indian Kings• Mahayana - "the Great Vehicle" - The largest of Buddhism's three divisions, prevalent in China, Japan and Korea, encompasses a variety of forms, including those that emphasize devotion and prayer to the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.• Ramayana - one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne• Moksha - The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.• Nirvana - (Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation• Samsara - (Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth• Shiva - is a Hindu deity. He is considered the Supreme God within Shaivism, one of the three most influential denominations in Hinduism. In other branches of Hinduism such as in the Smarta tradition, he is regarded as one of the five primary forms of God. He is "the Destroyer" or "the Transformer" among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine• Siddhi - "Achievement," a siddhi is a power gained through yogic practice. The term is especially important in Buddhist tantras, where there are two types of siddhis: (1) the mundane or wordly such as the power to fly, walk through walls, or transmute base metals into gold; and (2) the supermundane or transcendent siddhi of buddhahood. One who possesses siddhi is called a siddha, hence the mahasiddhas, or great adepts, of Indian tantric literature.• Shramana - "One who strives"; Wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India including Buddhism and Jainism the Buddha was a Shramana• Soma - personification of a sacred intoxicating drink used in Vedic ritual• Sutra - In Hinduism, a brief aphoristic composition; in Buddhism, a more extended exposition of a subject and the basic form of the scripture of both Theravada and Mahayana traditions. Since the early Indian philosophers did not work with written texts at all, and later philosophers often disdained them, there was a need for very brief explanatory works that could be committed to memory. The earliest sutras were expositions of ritual procedures, but their use spread, and eventually nearly all Indian philosophical systems had their own sutras.• Tantra - The esoteric tradition common to both hinduism and Buddhism that employs practices that defy caste and gender orthopraxy to lead individuals to moksha/nirvana quickly• Therevada - sect of Buddhism; the lesser vehicle; strict spiritual discipline & original teachings of Buddha; philosophy• Upanishads - The Upanishads (Sanskrit: , IAST: Upaniṣad, IPA: [up niə ʂ d]) are a collection of philosophical texts which form the theoretical əbasis for the Hindu religion. They are also known as Vedanta, the end of the veda. The Upanishads are considered by orthodox Hindus to contain revealed truths (Sruti) concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the character and form of human salvation (moksha). The Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas and have been passed down in oral tradition.• Vajrayana - The Vehicle of the Diamond - Named for the vajra, the Buddha's diamond scepter; prevalent form of Buddhism in Tibet; emphasizes the harnessing of sensual energies to attain nirvana.• Yoga - Hindu discipline aimed at training the consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility that is achieved through the three paths of actions and knowledge and devotion• Vedas - sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests• Vishnu - a god, originally a minor Vedic god, now regarded by his worshipers as the supreme deity and savior, by others as the preserver of the cosmos in a triad with Brahma and Shiva. Vishnu is considered by Hindus to have had nine earthly incarnations or avatars, including Rama, Krishna, and the historical Buddha; the tenth avatar will herald the end of the world.• Sex Realms of Existence (Samsara) – - Deva Realm (Gods)- Asura Realm (Demigods)- Human Realm- Animal Realm- Preta Realm (hungry ghosts)- Nakara Realm (hells)• Five K's of Khalsa - Initiates are required to wear 5 items - Kes, uncut hair/beard- Kangha, comb worn in hair- Kirpan, steel dagger- Kara, steel ring worn on right wrist- Kach, shorts• Life of Buddha - - Born as Siddhartha Guatama in India- Born into a royal family, lived and practiced as a Vedic Hindu- Married when he was 19.- Was shielded by his family from the difficulties of life outside the court- Sees the "four sights", which disturb him- Becomes disturbed by the existence of


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