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FSU REL 1300 - Final Exam Study Guide

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REL1300: Intro to World Religions Final Exam Study GuidePart One: Terms and Ideas, Festivals and Groups/Sects Harappa Culture: Existed from 2750-1750 BCE, an urban civilization with heavy fortifications, city planning, brick-houses, writing system. Disappeared in 1750, possibly due to Indo-European invasions. VedantaA school of philosophy originally used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known as the Upanishads.DeepvaliKnown as the “Festival of lights”, a five-day Hindu festival which starts on either October 15 or November 15, celebrates Krishna and Narakasura, and is like the New Year, complete with fireworks, dressing up, etc. Atman & Anatman: Anatman is the doctrine that there is in humans no underlying substance that could be called the soul. Atman means self, or the true essence of an individual. A human must acquire self-knowledge, YogaA philosophical system, Generic term for the physical, mental, and spiritual disciplines, which originated in ancient India. Original meaning was to detach the MokshaLiberation from samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth.which is to realize that one’s true self (atman) is indentical with the transcendent self, Brahman.mind from external stimuli. Brahman and BrahmaBrahman is the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world, and the ultimate essence of material phenomena (including the original identity of the human self) Brahma is the name of the creator deity. Tantrism, HinduTantric ritual seeks to access the supra mundane through the mundane, identifying the microcosm with the macrocosm, the sublimate rather than to negate relative reality.PujaA religious ritual performed by Hindus as an offering to various deities, distinguished persons, or special guests. In Hindusim, it is done on a variety of occaisions and settings, from daily puja in the home to temple ceremonies.Karma“action”, rewards/punishments, actions/consequencesBhaktiSouthern India in the 5th century CE, wandering poet-saints called Alvars. Open to everyone, not caste-conscious. Tamil heritage. Poems often refer to Ramayana, Mahabharata, and the Puranas. Tilaka and bindiForehead decoration represents the third eye. Can be used for festivals such as Holi. Can be used to focus meditation.SamsaraReincarnation, cycle of death and rebirthSyllable OmHindus believe that as creation began, the divine, all-encompassing consciousness took the form of the first and original vibration manifesting as sound “om”. The vibration symbolizes the manifestation of God in form, and the reflection of absolute reality.VaisyaOne of the four varnas of Hindu social order, duties includes cattle rearing and other pastoral tasks, productive labor, agriculture and trade and commerce.BrahminsPriestly casteNaga North Indian BhaktiDharmaThe law that “upholds, supports, or maintains the regulatory order of the universe”. LingaA representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples. Tantra/tantrismNumerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. Caste SystemLaws of Manu, 1st Century CE, Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya (rulers), Vaisyas Ayurvedic MedicineSystem of traditional medicine native to the Indian(merchants), Shudras (servants) subcontinent and a form of alternative medicine. Yoruba NavaratiFestival dedicated to the worship of the Hindu deity Durga. Literally means “nine nights”. HoliFeast of love, honors youthful Krishna. 3 days of citywide play, throwing colorful dye at each other. Last day there is a bonfire to consume evil. Ashramas (p. 280)One of four stages of an age-based social system laid out in the Manu Smriti and later Classical Sanskrit texts. Includes Brahmacharya (student life), Grihastha (household life), Vanaprastha (retired life) and Sannyasa (renounced life) Hindu gurusA respected person with saintly qualities who enlightens the mind of his or her disciple, an educator SatiPractice of a widowed woman settling herself on fire on her husband’s funeral Three Ways to LiberationThe Karma yoga, the path of work. The Jnana Yoga, the path offrom whom one receives the iniatory mantra, and one who instructs in rituals and religious ceremonies. pyre. Derived from the original name of the goddess Sati, also known as Dakshayani, who self-immolated because she was unable to live with her father Daksha’s humiliation of her living husband Shiva.knowledge, and The Bhakti yoga, the path of devotion. Triple Gem of BuddhismBuddha (the enlightened one) Dharma (the teaching/path to enlightenment) Sangha (the community of those who have attained enlightenment)ShudraServants/peasants under the Laws of Manu. Lowest caste. TheravadaOldest surviving Buddhist branch literally means “teaching of the elders”. Mostly closely resembles early Buddhism, and is still a major Buddhist school today. Believes you must be a monk in order to attain enlightenment, and involves popular support of the monastic sangha through donations.Enlightenment through monastic discipline. Enlightenment comes only through personal effort, no supernatural help. Wheel of DharmaA symbol that has represented dharma, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment.ParinirvanaThe complete nirvana, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained complete awakening. Part of Mahayana Buddhism. MahayanaLay people can attain enlightenment and liberation; heaven-dwelling Bodhisattvas (saints) help those seeking enlightenment and liberation. “Greater vehicle”, developed in 1st century CE. 1 cosmic reality that manifests itself in heavenly beings and humans. The Four Sights (Buddhism)Siddharta Gautama saw four men on his journey outside the palace: Old man, sick man, dead man, NirvanaProfound peace of mind that is acquired through moksha. State of being free from suffering. In Hindu Vajrayana“Diamond vehicle”. Himalayan Buddhism, spread in 8th century CE.enlightened man. philosophy, it is union with Brahman. Merged with Tibetan folk and magic traditions. Include mandalas, sacred geometric designs and mantra, sacred chants. Part of Zen Buddhism, meditation on paradoxes/illogical riddles. Four Noble Truths1. Existence is suffering2. The origin of suffering is attachment or desire. 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.4. The way to overcome suffering is to follow the eightfold path. Dana RitualStupas/PagodasA structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the ashes of


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