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FSU REL 1300 - Final Exam Study Guide

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FSU Online World Religions Final Exam Study GuideTerms: Know what each term means, the religion(s) it is associated with, and the general context in which it is relevant to the religion(s).1. Adi Granth• Meaning: o “Original Book”o The definitive statement of Sikhism’s unique spiritual stance• Associated With: o Sikh tradition• Relevance:o Primary scripture of the Sikh’so Not only to be read/studied, but to be practiced and livedo First compiled by Guru Arjan in 16042. Advaita Vedanta• Meaning:o Path to liberation without limitationo Literal translation is “non-dual”o Shankara’s school of philosophy, which holds that there is only one ultimate reality, the indescribable Brahman, with which the Atman or self is identicalo “Vedas” Considered the most authoritative of all texts Parts of the Vedas were used in both domestic and temple rituals• Associated With:o Hinduism• Relevance:o School of philosophy within Hinduism3. Agnostic• Meaning: o A God may exist, but he is unknowable • Associated With:o Hindu philosophyo Greek philosophy• Relevance:o Describes spiritual knowledge4. Ahimsa• Meaning:o Cause no harm-through speech, action, or thought-even to ‘one-sensed’ beings (invisible air-bodied beings, water, fire, earth) as well as plants, insects, animals, and fellow human beings.• Associated With:o Jaina traditiono Hinduismo Buddhism• Relevance:o One of the five “great vows” Ahimsa encompasses all other vowso Forbids all involvement with the world and ensures that no action is undertaken spontaneously5. Alchemical Daoism• Meaning:o Purification of one’s spirit and body through the various concoctions• Associated With:o Daosism practice• Relevance:o Used in the quest for immortality6. Amaterasu• Meaning:o Female deity of the suno Born from the eye of the primordial deity Izanagi following his purification• Associated With:o Shintu religiono Japanese Mythology• Relevance:o Enshrined at Ise as the patron deity of the Imperial familyo All emperors are said to be her descendants7. Amitabha Buddha• Meaning:o A Buddha of a previous age• Associated With:o Buddhist tradition• Relevance:o Amitabha took 48 bodhisattva vows detailing his intention to strive for enlightenment and help others in specific wayso Most notable vow was the promise to establish a heavenly region-the “Pure Land” or “Western Paradise”-into which all beings who so desired could be reborn (ideal of Buddhist heaven)8. Anatman• Meaning:o “no-soul”• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o The doctrine that the human person is impermanent, a changing combination of components9. Arjat• Meaning:o “worthy ones, saints”o Someone who has realized the ideal of spiritual perfection• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o Each era is believed to have only one fully enlightened, teaching Buddha, but there are numerous other beings in every age who are thought to have achieved some degree of enlightenment10. Arjuna• Meaning:o Heroic royal leadero An archer and son of Pandu• Associated With:o Hinduismo International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON)• Relevance:o Loses the will to fight during a battle against his own kin and is met by Krishnao Goes against Dharma Family vs. Social Fabric11. Aryan• Meaning:o “the chosen ones”o An Indo-European people usually thought to have migrated there sometime between 1750 and 1500 BCE.• Associated With:o Hinduism• Relevance:o According to the ancient Hindu text called the Reg Veda, the Sarasvati (river) had five Aryan tribes living on its banks.o Introduced the use of incense which affected the Hindu religion12. Atman• Meaning:o Human soulo “the individual self”• Associated With:o Hindu tradition• Relevance:o Held up Upanishadic and Vedantic thinkers to be identical with Brahman, the world-soul13. Aum Shinrikyo• Meaning:o New Religious Movement (NRM)o Syncretistic cult• Associated With:o Japaneseo Combined elements of: Buddhism Hinduism Christianity • Relevance:o Responsible for the sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway system that killed 13 and injured more than a thousand people n 1995 This was a prime example of the power a charismatic ‘holy man’ with an apocalyptic message can exert over disaffected young people14. Avalokiteshvara• Meaning:o Bodhisattva of compassion• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o The Dalai Lama is a manifestation of Avalokiteshvara15. Bhagavad Gita• Meaning:o The Song of Bhagavano Compares the rebirth of the soil to its continuity through changes of our bodies in this lifeo Most important work of Indian sacred literature• Associated With:o Hinduism• Relevance:o Extract of the Mahabharata (100,000 verses-longest poem in the world)16. Bhakti• Meaning:o Spiritual discipline of devotion to a deity or guru• Associated With:o Hinduismo International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON)• Relevance:o Leads to salvation or nirvana17. Bodhisattva• Meaning:o A being who is on the way to enlightenment or Buddhahood but has not yet achieved it• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevanceo Each bodhisattva resides over a heavenly region18. Bodhisattva Vow• Meaning:o Understood as a “special case”o The solemnly promise to work towards Buddhahood • Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o Bodhisattva’s were encouraged to take the bodhisattva vows declaring their intention to become buddhas someday, while actively working to help liberate all beings19. Brahma• Meaning:o A minor deity **Do not confuse with Brahman**o Creator of God• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o Brahma is said to have created the universe20. Brahman• Meaning:o “Supreme Being”o pervades and yet transcends not only human thought but the universe itself• Associated With:o Hinduismo Buddhism• Relevance:o Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe.o Controller of the human soul (atman)21. Brahmin• Meaning:o Priests and teachers• Associated With:o Hinduism• Relevance:o Teach Dharma22. Buddha• Meaning:o “Awakened one”• Associated With:o Buddhism• Relevance:o The Buddha is not worshipped as a god: he is venerated as a fully enlightened human beingo He set the wheel of dharma (teaching) in motion, established a community (sangha) of disciples, and charged


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