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FSU REL 1300 - Final Exam Study Guide

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REL1300 Final Exam Study GuideTerms and Ideas and Festivals and Groups/SectsHarappa Culture: Civilization from 2750-1750 BCE characterized by urban civilization, heavy fortifications, city-planning, brick houses, granaries and a writing system. Civilization possibly disappeared because of an Indo-European invasion. Atman & Anatman: Atman in Hinduism refers to the "self" or the identity that remains beneath one's unchanging self. In Buddhism, Anatman refers to the idea of "no self" or the idea that there is no permanent unchanging identity.Brahman & Brahma: Brahman is the Supreme Being in Hinduism and Brahma is the creator god. Unity with Brahman is the goal for those who seek moksha. The Early Vedic Brahman is described as a cosmic power present in vedic ritual controlled by the Brahmin. The Upanishads Brahman is described as an impersonal supreme force pervading the cosmos. Karma: "action". In Hinduism Karma is what propels you into the next form of existence in the cycle of samsara. Samsara: the cycle of death and rebirth in both Hinduism and Buddhism. Brahmins: the priestly caste at the top of the caste system in Hinduism. They perform religious ceremonies and rituals.Dharma: the divine law that rules karma. It requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society. Caste System: traditional division of hindu society into various categories. There are 4 main varnas, or classes: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra or priests, warriors, merchants and servants.Yoruba: West African people who form several kingdoms in what is now Benin and Southern NigeriaHoli: Hindu festival that honors the youthful Krishna with 3 days of city-wide play. On the last day of the festival they have a bonfire that is meant to consume evil.Hindu Gurus: a respectful person with saintly qualities who can impart transcendental knowledge and enlighten the minds of their disciples. Triple Gem of Buddhism: The three things that buddhists take refuge in: Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. Wheel of Dharma: The symbol that represents dharma. It is a chariot wheel with 8 spokes that represent the noble eightfold path, the circle represents the perfection of dharma, the stub represents discipline, and the rim represents mindfulness. The Four Sights: include an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic that Siddhartha Guatama saw when he finally left the palace. Koan: in Zen buddhism, a paradoxical question that can not be answered logically. This is a technique used to test consciousness and inspire enlightenment. Stupas/Pagodas: Stone structures used to hold the relics of the buddha. The stupas are sometimes walked around by monks during meditation.Tantrism, Buddhist: Mostly seen in Vajrayana buddhism. It combines elements of Hinduism and paganism including magical and mystical elements like mantras, mudras and erotic rites.Mantra: a sacred word or phrase that is often repeated during prayer and meditation.Murti: the manifestation of a god in a particular form. Literally means "embodiment".Mudras: symbolic hand gestures used in the rituals of vajrayana buddhism.Vedanta: Most popular school of hindu philosophy holding that all reality is essentially brahman, "the path of knowledge". Most notable advocate is Shankara. Claims that Brahman and Atman are the same. The end of the Vedas. Yoga: a practice used to gain control over the mind and body in order to reflect on the path to liberation. Tantrism, Hindu: Movement using initiation, rituals, imagination, and sexual symbolism as spiritual practices leading towards liberation. Bhakti: In Hinduism, religious devotion in the form of active, personal, involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine. Open to everyone, not caste conscious.Syllable Om: The sound of the universe and the sound emanating from all Brahman. Also a mantra used in contemplation of ultimate reality. Naga: Nature and water spirits. They are serpent-like or human-serpent hybrids.Linga: a conical or cylindrical stone column often referred to as phallic considered to be the symbol of the god Shiva.Bindi: The dot on the forehead of married Hindu women that represents the third eye or "concealed wisdom". Navarati: Festival of 9 nights celebrated by Hindus as a triumph of good over evil. Celebrate the elephant goddess with worship of Shakti, dance and festivities.Puja: The act of worship in which incense is burned and offering are made to a hindu deity represented by a statue or picture. Can be done at home or in a temple. Sati: self sacrifice of a widow who throws herself onto her husbands funeral pyre.Shudra: member of the lowest caste, usually translated as ‘servant’, though some could prosper in this class.Painnirvana: the final end of the cycle of rebirth, the total cessation of suffering , the perfection of happiness.Nirvana: [ nibbana in the vernacular pali language] term for the state of enlightenment. Has both negative and positive. Negative; sense of putting out ‘fires’ of greed , hatred and delusion. Positive means ultimate bliss.4 noble truths: at the core of the Buddha’s 1st sermon were the 4 noble truths about suffering.• Noble truth of suffering; no living being can escape suffering. Birth , sickness, senility, death are all occasions of suffering, whether physical or psychological.• Noble truth of origin; suffering arises from excessive desire or craving.• Noble truth of cessation; suffering will cease when desire ceases.• Noble truth of eightfold path; it is possible to put an end to desire and hence suffering, by following the 8 principles of self improvement.Eight fold path: these 8 principles are not sequential, they must work together like petals of a flower. They are right understanding ( specifically the four noble truths), right thought ( no desire, ill will and cruelty), right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right meditation.Mantra: sacred syllables or phrases that are believed to bring great spiritual blessings when spoken or chanted.Sangha: the ‘congregation’ or community of Buddhists monks and nuns. In some contexts the congregation of lay persons may also be referred to as a sangha.Pure land Buddhism : the comfortable realm in the western heavens that is reserved for those who put their trust in its lord the celestial Buddha Amitabha.Sutra: a discourse or sermon attributed either to Shakyanuni himself or an important disciple.Deepavali: deepa meaning ‘lights’ and vali means ‘


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