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FSU REL 1300 - Study Guide

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KeyIslam (Week 11)HinduismBuddhismAdditional QuestionsKeyBlue – QuestionsGreen- DatesYellow - PeopleIslam (Week 11)1. 5 Pillars of Islama. The profession of faith through which one becomes Muslim.b. Regular worship, participate in the 5 daily prayers c. Almsgiving (giving money)d. Ramadan Faste. Participation in annual pilgrimage to Mecca2. Shahdah (Be able to produce the 2 statements) – It is the profession of the Muslim faith. Statements – 1. I bear witness that there is no god except God. 2. I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God3. In-sha’ Allah – Arabic term to indicate hope for a aforementioned event to occur4. Zakat – Prescribed welfare tax, 2.5% of each Muslims accumulated wealth5. Sadaquh – Voluntary almsgiving Muslims are expected to pay on top of the Zakat. 6. Id al-fitr – Congregational prayer performed at the end of the Ramadan Fast7. Hajj – Annual pilgrimage to Mecca8. What are the 4 essential features of a Mosque? a. Fountain for washing hands, face and feetb. Large area for kneeling and prostration in prayerc. A pulpit, where a leader delivers the sermond. Imageless niche in the middle of the wall closest to Mecca9. Mohamed Zakariya – Most celebrated Islamic Calligrapher in the U.S.10. What are the 2 types of Jihads? – Jihad means, “Struggle”.a. Inner Jihad – the struggle to make oneself more Islamicb. Outer Jihad – the struggle to make ones society more Islamic11. Hijab – A women’s veil of head covering12. Does the Qur’an Mention the hijab? What does it mention?a. No, it only demands that women dress modestly, as well as men.Hinduism1. Hinduism shares its name with what other major term? What does it derive from? What does it refer to?a. Shares it’s name with Indiab. Derived from “Sind” – name of the region holding the river Sindhuc. Refers to religion of the Indians2. Santana Dharma – Alternative term to Hinduism, refers to a persons particular caste, community, or group. Translation = “Eternal Faith”3. Dharma – Sanskrit word for religion. Means righteousness, justice, faith, duty, etc. This does not cover all that is sacred for a Hindu.4. 2700 BCE – Evidence of Indus Valley civilization5. Mohenjo Daro – One of the towns from ancient Hindu cultures. Home to a huge swimming pool like structure called the “great bath”. Referred to as “Mound of the Dead”. 6. Vedas – The earliest surviving Indo-European compositions. Works collectively known as Shruti. (Documents)7. Rig Veda – One of the 4 Vedic collections. Earliest section contained 1,028 hymns.8. Upanishads – Philosophical works section of each Veda. Composed around 600 BCE.9. What is unique about the Atharva Veda? a. It differs from the other 3 Vedas because it includes materials considered to be Non-Aryan, like incantations and remedies to ward off illness and evil spirits.10. Varnas – Each of the 4 Hindu castes (Brahman, Kshantriya, Vaishya, Shudra)11. Karma – Literal meaning = “Action”. A system of rewards and punisments attached to various actions. 12. Samsara – A continuing cycle of death and rebirth, or reincarnation. This is because the system of Karma may take several lifetimes to work out. 13. Moksha – Liberation from Samsara. This requires a transforming experiential wisdom.14. A-mrta – Those who attain Moksha and become immortal. Translation = “Without Death”15. Atman – Human soul, individual self16. Brahman – The supreme being, the world soul17. Satya – Truth or existence18. What are the 2 main Hindu epics, and what do their names mean?a. Ramayana – The story of Ramab. Mahabharata – Great Epic of India or Great Sons of Bharata19. What are the 3 ways to liberation described in the Gita?a. The way of actionb. The way of knowledgec. The way of devotion20. Who are the female consorts of Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma? a. Vishnu – Lakshimib. Shiva – Parvatic. Brahma – Sarasvati21. Who is Ganesha and how is she depicted? a. The elephant headed son of Shiva and Parvati. He is the most beloved god in all of Hinduism. People go to him in difficult situations22. Who is Hanuman and how is he depicted?a. The monkey god. He is a model devotee of Rama and Sita. He is everyone’s protector. 23. Which of the gods make up the Hindu trinity? Why does the book suggest that the description is misleading?a. Brama, Vishnu and Shiva make up the trinityb. Since they are sometimes represented as equals and as individuals, it suggests thati. Hindus give equal importance to all 3 gods, when in reality; they focus their devotions on one god. ii. The polytheistic interpretation of the 3 gods suggests that creation, preservation and destruction are functions that can be preformed separately.24. Yoga – The physical and mental discipline through which people “yoke” their spirit to the divine25. OM – A syllable chanted in meditation, interpreted as representing ultimate reality, or universe, or relationship of devotee to the deity26. Murtis – Variously translated “idols”, “icons”, “forms”, or “objects” to be worshipped27. Prasada – A gift from the deity, especially food that has been presented to the god’s temple image for blessing, and then is returned to the deity. 28. Naga – One of the earliest symbols in the Hindu tradition. It is a serpent29. Nataraja – A way Shiva is portrayed as a cosmic dancer, or the king of the dance. Usually has 4 hands.30. What are the 4 things that Nataraja holds in/does with his hands and what do they mean? a. Hourglass shaped drum – symbolizes sound, both speech and the divine truth heard through revelationb. One hand makes a gesture, granting fearlessness to the devoteec. Holds a flame – symbolizes destruction of the world at the end of timed. Points to his foot, which grants salvation and are worshipped to obtain union with Shiva31. Puja – Rituals performed at the home to express their devotion to a deity or spiritual teacher32. Sadhu – A holy man33. Sati – The self sacrifice of a widow who throws herself onto her deceased husbands funeral fireBuddhism1. Where did Buddhism originate? a. Along the Gangi river in India2. What are the 3 vehicles of Buddhism? a. Theravada – “Teaching of the elders” (Dominant in Sri Lanka)b. Mahayna – “Greater Vehicle” (Principal school in East Asia)c. Vajrayana – The tantric branch of Buddhism. Developed from Mahayna, and became closely associated with


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