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FSU CLP 4143 - Chapter 1. Looking at Abnormality

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Abnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 2014Learning Objectives for 1/8/ & 1/10Chapter 1. Looking at Abnormality 1. Know all KEY TERMS on pages 2-7 and pages 14-16. (These are the boldfaced terms found throughout the chapter and listed at end of chapter. Definitions for most of these terms also can be found in the Glossary in the back of the textbook.)Psychopathology: people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain -example: woman whose bff’s mom would turn into a witch Cultural Relativism: view that there are no universal standards or rules for labelinga behavior abnormal, instead, behaviors can be labeled abnormal only relative to cultural norms. - advantage: honors the norms and traditions of different culturesBiological Theories: have viewed abnormal behavior as similar to physical diseases, caused by the breakdown of systems in the body.- Cure: Restoration of bodily healthSupernatural Theories: viewed abnormal behavior as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin. -Cure: To rid the person of perceived affliction, religious rituals, exorcisms, confessions, and atonement have been prescribed. Psychological Theories: have viewed abnormal behavior as a result of traumas, suchas bereavement, or of chronic stress. - Cure: rest, relaxation, a change of environment and certain herbal medications are sometimes helpfulGeneral Paresis: a disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death. Often with history of syphilis.Mesmerism: strange methods used by Mesmer to treat his patients that suffered from hysterical disorders. Later labeled as hypnosis. Psychoanalysis: the study of the unconsciousClassical Conditioning: Pavlov’s dogsBehaviorism: the study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behavior.Abnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 20142. What is this course all about? That is, define “abnormal psychology” and “mental illness.” (textbook and lecture)Common belief is that behaviors, thoughts, or feelings can be viewed as pathologicalor abnormal if they are symptoms of mental illness. However, mental health experts view mental disorders as collections of problems in thinking or cognition, in emotional responding or regulation, and in social behavior.3. What criteria are used to determine the presence of a mental disorder (four Ds of Abnormality) and what are their pros and cons? (textbook and lecture)Dysfunction: behaviors, thoughts, or feelings that interfere with the person’s ability to function in everyday life, to hold a job, or to form close relationshipsThe more dysfunctional behaviors and feelings are, the more likely they are to be considered abnormal by mental health professionals. Example: thinking you are satan and should be punishedDistress: Can cause tremendous emotional and even physical pain; in other cases, theperson diagnosed with a disorder is not in distress, for example, through chronic lying, stealing, or violence.Deviance: hearing voices when no one else is around is a highly deviant behavior. What is deviant in influenced by social norms. Dangerousness: Some behaviors and feelings are of potential harm to the individual, such as suicidal gestures, or to others, such as excessive aggression. Pro: The four Ds together make up mental health professionals’ definition of behaviors or feelings as abnormal or maladaptive.Con: left making subjective judgments. A person’s behaviors and feelings can be more or less dysfunctional, distressing, deviant, or dangerous. Thus, there is no sharp line between what is normal and what is abnormal. 4. What is the continuum model of abnormality and when is someone’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors considered to be abnormal? (textbook and lecture)Continuum model of abnormality: making decisions about where to draw the line that indicates a sufficient amount of abnormality to warrant a diagnoses or treatment.Abnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 20145. How does culture play a role in the concept of mental disorders? (textbook and lecture)Culture and gender influences: 1) influence the way people express symptoms2) influence people’s willingness to admit to certain types of behaviors or feelings3) influence the types of treatments deemed acceptable or helpful for people exhibiting abnormal behaviors. 6. What is the distress criterion for abnormality? What about it is useful and what is problematic? (textbook and lecture)1. The distress criterion suggests that only behaviors or emotions that an individual finds distressing should be labeled abnormal. . This criterion acknowledges the importance of the subjective experience of the individual. However, not all people who are engaging in behaviors that might harm others or themselves are discomforted by these behaviors.7. What are the four different approaches/theories (called “Modern Perspectives” in thetextbook) for causes of abnormal behavior discussed in the textbook? How do thesetheories influence treatment approaches? (mostly textbook)- Modern Biological Perspectives:Wilhelm Griesinger wrote book presenting a systematic argument that all psychological disorders can be explained in terms of brain pathology. Emil Kraepelin also developed a scheme for classifying symptoms into discrete disorders that is the basis for our modern classification systems- Psychoanalytic Perspective:Abnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 2014Franz Anton Mesmer believed people had a magnetic fluid in the body that must be distributed in a particular pattern in order to maintain health. Experiments of Bernheim and Liebault, along with Charcot, did a great deal to advance psychological causes of abnormal behavior Breur and Freud collaborated to lay out their discoveries about hypnosis, the unconscious, and the therapeutic value of catharsis. - Behaviorism: Ivan Pavlov started the studiesSkinner and Thorndike came up with operant, or instrumental conditioning. In other words, focusing on positive or negative reinforcement. 8. What are the various professions in the field of Abnormal Psychology? (textbook)Psychiatrists: have an MD degree and have received specialized training in the treatment of psychological problems. Can prescribe medication for treatment of psychological problems. Have been trained to conduct psychotherapies as well. Clinical Psychologists: typically have a PhD in psychology, with specialization in treating and researching psychological problems. Can conduct psychotherapy,


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