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FSU CLP 4143 - Chapter 8: Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders

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Abnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 2014falsLearning Objectives for 4/2 – 4/9Chapter 8: Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic DisordersReadings for this chapter include all topics in chapter 8.1. Know all KEY TERMS in chapter 8. (These are the boldfaced terms found throughout the chapter and listed at end of chapter. Definitions for most of these terms also can be found in the Glossary in the back of the textbook.)o Psychosis- state involving a loss of contact with reality as well as inability to differentiate between reality and one’s subjective stateo Schizophrenia- disorder consisting of unreal or disorganized thoughts and perceptions as well as verbal, cognitive, and behavioral deficitso Schizophrenia spectrum- the set of psychiatric disorders related to schizophrenia that vary along a severity continuum o Positive symptoms- in schizophrenia, hallucinations, delusions, and disorganizationin thought and behavior o Delusions- fixed beliefs with no basis in realityo Persecutory delusions- false, persistent beliefs that one is being perused by other peopleo Delusions of reference- false belief that external events, such as other people’s actions o Grandiose delusions- false, persistent beliefs that one has superior talents and traitso Delusions of thought insertion- beliefs that one’s thoughts are being controlled by outside forceso Hallucinations- perceptual experiences that are not realo Formal thought disorder- state of highly disorganized thinking (also known as loosening of associations)o Catatonia- group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside worldo Negative symptoms- in schizophrenia, deficits in functioning that indicate the absence of a capacity present in people without schizophrenia, such as restricted affecto Restricted affect- a symptom in which emotional expression is reduced or absent o Avolition- inability to persist at common goal-directed activitieso Prodromal symptoms- in schizophrenia, milder symptoms prior to an acute phase of the disorder, during which behaviors are unusual and peculiar but not yet psychotic or completely disorganizedo Residual symptoms- diagnosis made when a person has already experienced a single acute phase of schizophrenia but currently has milder and less debilitating symptomsAbnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 2014o Schizoaffective disorder- disorder in which individuals simultaneously experience schizophrenic symptoms (i.e., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behaviors, and / or negative symptoms) and mood symptoms meeting the criteria for a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or an episode of mixed mania / depressiono Schizophreniform disorder- disorder in which individuals meet the primary criteria for schizophrenia but show symptoms lasting only 1 to 6 monthso Brief psychotic disorder- disorder characterized by the sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and / or disorganized behavior that last only between 1 day and 1 month, after which the symptoms vanish completelyo Delusional disorder- disorder characterized by delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, or deceived by a spouse or having a disease; people with this disorder do not show anyother symptoms of schizophreniao Schizotypal personality disorder- chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behavior as well as aberrant cognitions and disorganized speecho Phenothiazines- drugs that reduce the functional level of dopamine in the brain and tend to reduce the symptoms of schizophreniao Neuroleptics- drugs used to treat psychotic symptomso Mesolimbic pathway- subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotiono Social drift- explanation for the association between schizophrenia and low social stats that says that because schizophrenia symptoms interfere with a person’s abilityto complete an education and hold a job, people with schizophrenia tend to drift downward in social class compared to their family of origino Expressed emotion- family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are over-protective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, andresentful of this member o Chlorpromazine- antipsychotic drugo Tardive dyskinesia- neurological disorder marked by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugso Atypical antipsychotics- drugs that seem to be even more effective in treating schizophrenia than Phenothiazines without the same neurological side effects; they bind to a different type of dopamine receptor than other neuroleptic drugso Assertive community treatment programs- system of treatment that provides comprehensive services to people with schizophrenia, employing the expertise of medial professionals, social works, and psychologists to meet the variety of patient’s need 24 hours a day 2. What is the prevalence of schizophrenia and how does it vary by gender and ethnicity? (lecture & textbook)-Estimates of the prevalence of schizophrenia in various countries rangeAbnormal PsychologyCLP4143Spring 2014from about 0.1 to 2.0 percent, but most estimates are between 0.5 and 1.o percent. There are some slight ethnic differences in rate of schizophrenia, but these may be due to differences in socioeconomic status. -Women with schizophrenia tend to have a better prognosis than men withthe disorder. The reasons for these gender differences are not entirely clear. Women diagnosed with schizophrenia tend to have a better prior histories than men: They are more likely to have graduated from high school or college, to havemarried and had children, and to have developed good social skills. This may be,in part, because the onset schizophrenia in women tends to be in the late twenties or early thirties, whereas men more often develop schizophrenia in their late teens or early twenties.-Culture appears to play a strong role in the course of schizophrenia. Cross-national studies find that persons who develop schizophrenia in countries, such as India, Nigeria, and Colombia are less disabled by the disorder in the longterm than are persons who develop schizophrenia in countries such as Great Britain, Denmark, and the United States. 3. What are the primary symptoms of schizophrenia? How are positive and negative


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