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FSU CLP 4143 - Chapter 8: Schizophrenia & Related Psychotic Disorders

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CLP 4143 Final Study Guide (Ch 8, 9 & 16)Chapter 8: Schizophrenia & Related Psychotic Disorders What is the prevalence of schizophrenia? Within the U.S., 1 to 2 percent of the population will develop schizophrenia at some time in their lives. It is the most common psychotic disorder. Between 0.5 and 2 percent of the general world population will develop schizophrenia. Define the following: Alogia: deficit in both the quantity of speech and the quality of its expression. Avolition: inability to persist at common goal-directed activities. Word salad: a person’s speech is so disorganized as to be totally incoherent to the listener.  Example: “Much of abstraction has been left unsaid and undone in these products milk syrup…” Neologism: a person may make up words that mean something only to him or her. Blunted affect: affective flattening; a severe reduction or absence of affective (emotional) responses to the environment. The person’s face may remain immobile most of the time, and his or her body language may be unresponsive. Working memory: the ability to hold information in memory and manipulate it. People with schizophrenia show deficits in this kind of memory. Negative symptoms: of schizophrenia involve loss, or deficits, in certain domains. Includes affective flattening, alogia, and avolition. Positive symptoms: of schizophrenia include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, and disorganized or catatonic behavior. Medication is the most helpful for which type of symptoms (positive or negative)? Positive symptoms. The negative symptoms are less responsive to medication. What is paranoid schizophrenia? In comparison to the other forms of schizophrenia, what is its prognosis like? Paranoid schizophrenia: people have prominent delusions and hallucinations that involve themes of persecution and grandiosity. They often do not show grossly disorganized speech or behavior. They may be lucid and articulate, relating elaborate stories of plots against them. The prognosis of people with paranoid schizophrenia is better than the prognosis for people with other types of schizophrenia. They are more likely to be able to live independently and to hold down a job and show better cognitive and social functioning. Onset tends to occur later in life than does the onset of other forms of schizophrenia. Episodes of psychosis are often triggered by stress. In general, it is considered a milder, less insidious form of schizophrenia. What is disorganized schizophrenia? Disorganized schizophrenia: people do not have well-formed delusions or hallucinations; Instead, their thoughts and behaviors are severely disorganized. May speak in word salads and be completely incoherent to others. They are prone to odd, stereotyped behaviors, such as frequent grimacing or mannerisms such as flapping their hands. May not show any emotional reactions, or they may have inappropriate emotional reactions to events, such as laughing at a funeral. Know the names and give a description of the 3 phases of schizophrenia. Prodromal phase: symptoms present before full criteria is met. Acute phase: active psychosis. Full, complete symptoms of schizophrenia.  Residual phase: symptoms present after acute phase. During the prodromal and residual phases: people with schizophrenia may express beliefs that are unusual but not delusional…may have strange perceptual experiences. They make speak in a somewhat disorganized and tangential way but remain coherent. The negative symptoms are especially prominent…person may be withdrawn/uninterested. Explain the gender differences in schizophrenia (prevalence, age of onset, prognosis, etc.) Prevalence:  Women with schizophrenia tend to have better pre-disorder histories than men.• Are more likely to have graduated from high school or college, to have married and had children, and to have developed good social skills. Women are hospitalized less often and for briefer periods of time than are men, show milder negative symptoms between periods of acute positive symptoms, and have better social adjustment when they are not psychotic. Age of onset:  Women: late twenties or early thirties Men: late teens or early twenties Prognosis:  Males show greater abnormalities in brain structure and functioning than do females. In both men & women, functioning seems to improve with age.• Might be related to reduction in dopamine levels in the brain with age. Explain the difference between delusions and hallucinations. Delusions: ideas that an individual believes are true but are highly unlikely and often simply impossible. Hallucinations: unreal perceptual experiences. Explain the difference between self-deception and delusions. Self-deception: people hold beliefs that are likely to be wrong, such as the belief that they will win the lottery. Differ in 3 ways from delusions:  Self-deceptions are at least possible, whereas delusions are not. People harboring self-deceptions may think about these beliefs occasionally, but people harboring delusions tend to be preoccupied with them. People holding self-deceptions typically acknowledge that their beliefs may be wrong, but people holding delusions often are highly resistant to arguments or compelling facts that contradict their delusions. In comparison to those in developed countries, what is the prognosis like for people with schizophrenia in developing countries? Why? People that develop schizophrenia in developing countries are less likely to remain incapacitated by the disorder in the long term than are persons who develop schizophrenia in developed countries. The social environment of people with schizophrenia in developing countries may facilitate adaptation and recovery better than the social environment of people with schizophrenia in developed countries.• In developing countries, there are broader and closer family networks.• This ensures that no one person is solely responsible for the care of a person with schizophrenia. What is Brief Psychotic Disorder? Brief psychotic disorder: individuals show a sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior. The episode lasts only between 1 day and 1 month, after which symptoms disappear completely. 


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