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FSU BSC 1005 - Dinosaur Biology

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Dinosaur Biology Study GuideLecture 1-paleontologist- someone who studies ancient organisms-paleobiology- the study of ancient life-“Scrotum humanum “– The first named dinosaur-Baron George Cuvier – man who convinced people to consider that animals can and have gone extinct-Reverend William Buckland – credited with describing the first scientifically valid dinosaur (megalosaurus)-Gideon Mantell – named the first herbivorous dinosaur (Iguanodon)-Reptiles – scaly skinned, terrestrialized (living on land) animals that lay hard shelled eggs – as defined bySir Richard OwenLecture 2-Dinosaurs lived from 238 – 65.6 million years ago-All dinosaurs have three characteristics: 1. 3 (or more) sacral vertebrae 2. 3 main fingers3. perforate acetabulae-Two main groups:1. Ornithischian “bird hips”2. Saurischian “lizard hips”-There were no aquatic dinosaurs-The largest recorded bite force of any present day crocodile is 3,700lbs (Australian saltwater croc)~study conducted by him~-The supposed loch ness monster is a “plesiosaurs”- “pterosaurs” were the birds of the time-A fossil is any remains of ancient life-Trace Fossils are any traces of ancient life or evidence of behavior. Ex: tracks, eggs, stomach stones (gastroliths), bite marks. -trace fossils are the primary means by which paleontologist learn about dinosaur biology.- Dinosaurs are found in sedimentary rock-The closest location to us, in Tallahassee, that dinosaurs can be found is GeorgiaLecture 3-The earliest dinosaurs were small-Endocasts- Formed when sediments fill the brain cavity during fossilization process and become solidified. -This allows us to tell the size of their brains-There are many crazy theories in paleontology because the field was previously all geologists-now biologists are coming in to the fieldLecture 4-The sex of dinosaurs in not know.-Sexual Dimorphism- When you can tell male from females based strictly on appearance-Dinosaurs are terrestrial (Land Animals)-Tooth batteries are self sharpening-Coprolites- Fossilized dino shit-Over-splitting- Naming the same species of dinosaur multiple times.Lecture 5-Two competing theories surrounding head banging dinosaurs1. Head-on butting (what it sounds like)2. Flank butting ( animals standing side by side)-Triceratops are the model for “The Griffin”-Diagram on page 57 in book demonstrates that the animal used to have a hornLecture 6-Longest dinosaur = 140 ft (diplodocids)-If its tail was at the front of the auditorium then its head would be by the owls in the lobby-Tallest dinosaur = 56ft (sauropseidon a Brachiosaur)-Know the diagram on pg 68, Sauropod head-nose ontop of headLecture 7 -The first mean eating dinosaur had a gap between its front and back teeth-Tetanurans – Features: Pubis boot and giant hands-Finite-element model- computerized biochemical model built to show how stress was distributed throughout a dinosaurs body-There was at least one theropod that ate plants (segnosaurs)-Encephalization quotient- a measure of brain size relative to body mass-Could determine how smart a dinosaur might have been-know that in the head diagram on page 78 the mouth is on the lower right side and the large hole in themiddle is the eye socket. -Deinonychosaurs – raptor that was depicted in Jurassic parkLecture 8-Tyrannosaurus rex did not drag its tail-The T-Rex had huge olfactory bulbs which gave it an excellent sense of smell-They could amble at about 21 mph – basically speed walking (always having two feet on the ground)-Roland reported that the T-Rex was a cannibal!-It is determined that they are both predators and scavengers.Lecture 9-Deinonychus- a dinosaur that peeked the interest of Robert Bakker and somewhat kicked off the dinosaur renaissance. ( period beginning in the late 1960’s that invented an interest in the study of dinosaurs)-Examination of dinosaur bones suggest a blend of both mammal and reptile physiology. -Dinosaurs grew faster than living reptiles but not as quickly as mammals. -Grew at a rate similar to marsupials.-40%-80% of life on this planet died when the dinosaurs did-There are three main extinction theories:1. Volcanism – A giant volcano exploded and altered earth’s climate.-Evidence of this in India2. Drastic lowering in sea levels -Evidence – seaway sediments3. A 10km asteroid hit the Gulf of México-evidence: giant crater -The interesting thing about these theories is that some animals survived. Why didn’t it kill birds, crocodiles, frogs and salamanders?-Archaeopteryx – A bird found in Germany (fossil was immaculate)- This discovery revealed feathers and led to the conclusion that birds are dinosaurs.-The archaeopteryx has the three characteristics of all dinosaurs-Paleobiologist believe that birds are theropod dinosaurs-The smallest dinosaur weighs only 7oz –


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