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FSU BSC 1005 - Lecture notes

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Biology NotesThe study of plants -section one.Plants produce caffeine and vanilla Carbon dioxide +water sugar+oxygen Rowanda is one of the most densely populated nations in the world. 2/3 of an acre per person. 82% of the land is cultivated. The population is expected to triple between 1950-2020. 2.5 billion to 7.5 billion. Agricultural production is increasing in every part of the world. Except for Africa. We have to keep up with the population increase. Plant growth is limited by drought. Agriculture is taking up 80% of our water. WHAT IS A PLANT? : characteristics of plants; they are green because of the chlorophyll. They get their food from photosynthesis. The stem system is rooted to the ground to deliver water to the leaves. They have rigid cell walls. The plants are not able to move. Plants have sperm and eggs. The flowers are the mode of reproduction. Pine cones are plants too. ARE FUNGI PLANTS?: the have cell walls and reproduce like plants. But they can not make their own food. THEY ARE NOT PLANTS. Carl Linnaeus- 18 century doctor and naturalist. He laid the foundation for current biological classification systems. He introduced the "binomial system". POLYNOMIAL VS. BINOMIAL. - solidago (genus) sempervirens (species).KINGDOM = PLANTE. that is the biggest and top classification. 5 KINGDOMS. 1. Plant2. Animal 3. Fungi 4. Protists5. BacteriaHUMANS=HOMO SAPIENSKINGDOM=ANIMALIAFirst organisms on earth were bacteria. About three billion years ago evolution evolved. Bacteria evolved photosynthesis. Rocks were oxidized. They were by the presence of a bacteria. Photosynthesiswas 3 billion years ago. Life begins 3.5 billion years ago and animals and fungi separate 1 billion years ago. Green plants also separated 1 billion years ago. Green Algae: 450 mya. Moss: 400 mya. They transport water. They have stems and roots and move water through their body. They developed areas for photosynthesis. Ferns: 350-375 mya. Seeds and pollen. Now we have the existence of them such as pine trees. Flowering Plants: 150 mya. Flowers and fruits. The study of plants -section two.- Energy consumption is being used faster than we are populating. - Burning fossil fuels is raising the earths temperature due to CO2 emissions. - Energy Use 1. Petroleum(oil)-40%. 2. Natural Gas-23%. 3. Coal-22%. - Renewable Resources. Main components include; hydroelectric, biomass, wind, geothermal, and solar. - Solix Biofuel's Algae facility in new Mexico is growing algae for oil extraction. This is currently about $8.00 a gallon. - Using renewable energy sources reduce CO2 emissions but some sources are better than others. Ethanol made from corn was being added to gas. To reduce CO2. It only reduces the CO2 emissions by 15%. - CELLS - ANIMAL CELL VS. PLANT CELLS- cytoplasm. - cell wall, layer outside of the cell membrane. Provides support and rigidity for the cell. - chloroplast. The spot where photosynthesis take place. There is no chloroplast in root cells. Chloroplast absorbs sunlight and joins water and CO2 to make sugars. Used for growth and provides carbon structure so plants can continue to grow. Molecular oxygen is created for us. - during photosynthesis plants lose large amounts of water. "transpiration". - xylem: moves water from roots to leaves. - phloem: moves sugars that are made in the leaves to the roots. - water loss due to transpiration causes wilting that reduces growth and can cause death. - guard cells: the open pore allows CO2 to get in. Because it can't get in the wax layer of the plant leaf. Photosynthesis happens. But water also evaporates. So this opens it up and allows the plant to have water loss. They control this by closing the guard cells or stomates. - cell wall: they are composed of long chains of sugars (CELLULOSE). Microfibers are clusters of cellulose chains that contains about 40 cell molecules. Each of these chains are made up of glucose sugars. 10,000each. Cellulose and Glucose is SUGAR!!- CARBON CYCLE - burning -> CO2 in the atmosphere -> photosynthesis -> primary consumption or detritus -> detrivores or higher level consumers -> cellular respiration -> CO2. - corn is used for many products. - alcohol - animal feed - food products- exportation - gas - pharmaceutical products- the price of corn has tripled since 2005.The study of plants -section three.PLANT STRUCTURE. VEGETATIVE STRUCTURE. PHYSICAL PARTS. - plants are put together by the shoot and the root. - the petiole. This is the shoot that connects the leave to the shoot. - shoot tip is at the top of the plant. It will grow out and produce. - plants grow by producing new cells at the tips of the shoot and root. Then the cell increases in size. - BOTANY - removing the shoot tip, will cause the bush to grow outward. Not up. This is what makes the bush, bushy. - cell division happens in the dome of the shoot tip. - xylem are empty and hollow which allow water to floe through easily. roots to leaves. - Most plants that live more than one year (perennials) grow in width as well as length. - cell devisions in the body of the stem and the root increases thickness. - TEST MATERIAL: there are two ways in which a plant grows. Up and out. - when flowering starts the shoot tip makes flower buds. - most flowers are hermaphroditic. They have both male and female structure. - after fertilization, the ovule becomes the seed. The egg become the embryo which is a young plant. The ovary becomes the fruit. - each anther contains sacs where pollen form. - each pollen grain contains two sperm cells. - The wall of the pollen grain contains a certain protein that releases and triggers a reaction in our body if it happens to reach our respiratory system. - POLLINATION: when a pollen grain lands on the stigma a pollen tube grows out. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma. - the pollen tube has to travel through the stigma and finds the ovary and the ovule. The pollen tube curves slightly towards the ovule. What would cause this? A chemical substance is released. Basically, smell. - FERTILIZATION: sperm + egg gives you and embryo. - COTYLEDONS: storage leaves. - ENDOSPERM: food for the embryo. - SEED COAT: protective layer to keep the embryo safe. - in some plants the endosperm is digested as the seed develops and is replaced by the cotyledons. - a corn seed is mostly endosperm. Starch or sugars are mostly in corn.The study of plants -section four.- many valuable agricultural


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