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FSU BSC 1005 - EXAM 4 Study Guide

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EXAM 4 Study GuideKeywordsPaleontologist: a specialist who studies the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.Paleobiology: Combines the methods of natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. Scrotum Humanum: The first name of a dinosaur discoveredMosasaurus: The animal that first started the concept that animals were extinctMegalosaurus: The “big lizard.” When this was found, no one really cared yet.Iguanodon: named for the tooth that looked like an iguana toothRichard Owen: A paleontologist that first created the word “dinosauria” which means “fearfully great reptile” Pterosaurs: closest relative to dinosaursThe three features of a dinosaur:- Three or more sacral vertebrae- Perforate acetabulum- Three or more fingersTwo kinds of dinosaurs: - Ornithischians (bird hipped)- Saurischians (lizard hipped)Deinonychus: stood on two toes and looked like a bird (this is the dinosaur which fueled the dinosaur renaissance)Half-life: when a material degrades, the half-life is when one half of the material is gone and lets us know when it first existed.Deinosuchus: “the giant crocodile”Plesiosaurus: a sea monster, not a dinosaur. This is what the loch ness monster isTrace Fossils: the remains of other organic material produced by an organism (but not the actual remains) For example: burrows and feeding marksSedimentary Rocks: where we find dinosaur remains (we also find them less commonly in igneous rocks from volcanoes)Badlands: places where plants don’t grow and where we find dinosaursOrnithischians: bird shaped hipbonesThyreophora: categorized by having a shield barrier or body armorOsteoderms: bumps on the back of a dinosaurEndocasts: The internal cast of a hollow object. Fills brain cavities to tell us about biology and fossilsCerapoda: dinosaurs with a gap between the front and back teethHeterodontosaurus: “different toothed lizard.” Has different shaped teeth like a mammal.Sexual dimorphism: differences in size and shape between sexes. (This is found in dinosaurs although we do not know the sex of any dinosaur)Tooth battery: they have hundreds of teeth that work together while they eat, with new teeth erupting into the mouth all the time.Hadrosaurid: or “duck billed” dinosaurs. We have the most evidence of this kind of dinosaurs because of things such as bite marks, feces, and track marks. Marginocephalia: classified by the rim on the bone of the back of the neck- This bone was either used for head butting or flank buttingCeratopsians: beaks shaped like a parrotOviraptor: known as the “egg stealers” because it was thought they would steal eggs from the protoceratops, but they were actually protecting their own oviraptor eggs and being good moms!Pachyrhinosaurus: “thick nosed lizard” Canadians believe they had a giant nose hornSauropods: long necks, long tails, small heads, and had their nose on top of their head.Theropod: Beast-footed dinosaur. Most closely associated with a bird.Spinosaurus: remains blown up by the British in WW2Ornithomimids: the fasted dinosaur. Could go 40mph or moreSegnosaurus: “dino scissorhands” There was one of these that was a plant eater, according to the teeth.Deinonychosauria: Had a fearsome huge clawTroodons: the smartest dinosaurs that had the largest brain sizeEncephalization quotient: brain size vs. weightDinosauroid: a picture of what would be an evolved dinosaur to a humanArchaeopteryx: the first birdFacts to know- China was the first to write about dinosaurs - Dinosaurs are related to crocodiles and pterosaurs o However, they are most closely related with pterosaurs- Robert Bakker and the Deinonychus are what fueled the dinosaur renaissance- Dinosaurs lived over 65.5 million years ago- The climate of the entire world was much warmer back when dinosaurs lived.- Crocodiles lived with dinosaurs- The largest crocodile was weighed at FSU at 3,700 lbs.- We don’t find dinosaurs in Florida, but we do find them in Georgia- Paleontology is found in geology, not biology- We do not know the sex of any dinosaur- Dinosaurs were terrestrial! (Not sea or air animals)- Dinosaurs have self sharpening teeth- Dinosaurs found with crests were first thought to be snorkels, but this couldn’t be because there were no holes at the top of the crests to make them snorkels!- The lonest dinosaur recorded was the supersaurus at 140 + feet!- The Apatosaurus was also named the brontosaurus (it was named twice)- The Tallest dinosaur recorded was the sauroposeidon at 56 feet tall!- Oviraptors were toothless- The TREXo The tail is not on the groundo Not a lot of fingerso Had a great sense of smello Couldn’t run, they would just ambleo Cannibalistico Was a predator and a scavenger- We cut open dinosaurs bones and found that they grew fast and then just stopped, and they had a fast metabolism. They grew much faster than reptiles.- Dinosaurs were extinct 65.5 million years ago, along with 40-80% of other plants and animals- Why did dinosaurs die?o Three possible theories: Volcanoes Draining of the seas (sea changes) Asteroid impact- The smallest dinosaur found was 7ozDr. Erickson also mentioned in the review that we should be familiar with the chart on page 129 of the


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