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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 9 Middle Childhood notes

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FAD3220 Chapter 9 Middle Childhood notesClass notes - Elementary School years (6-11 yrs) - Drastically different from changes in other stages - Pre-K because it costs money, unless they have low income and qualify to go for freeHeight and weight - Growth slows considerably - Growth 2-3 inches per year from 6 to 11- Double in weight in 5 year time span - Girls retain more fatty tissue- Children are average 11 lbs heavier than 40 years ago probably because they are more sedentary in schools and rise in obesity; fast food) Nutrition and Sleep - 2400 calories: growth and exertion - Sleep needs decrease down to 9-10 hours (naps may continue, but not likely) - Barriers to good sleep:o Allowing children to set their own bed times o TV sets in bedrooms - When children go to school you lose some control over them Motor Development - Continues to develop - Children spend less time playing/ exercising and more time on… school/ homework, TV, computers, iPods, and video games Obesity and Body Image - If trends continue, by 2010, nearly 50% of U.S. Children will be overweight. - Boys more likely than girls to be obese (social pressure and standards, video games) - Causes: genetics, nutrition, exercise, etc. Cognitive Development: Piaget- Enter the stage of concrete operations- Use mental operations (reasoning) to solve concrete (actual) problems. - Spatial relationships: projects and dioramas help facilitate this- Causality (judging cause and effect) Categorization - Seriation: ability to order things along a dimension (large-small) - Transition inference: infer a relationship between 2 objects from the relationship between each of them and a third object (difference in parts of circulatory system); (A>B; B>C what is therelationship?)- Class inclusion: relationship between a whole and its parts (class animalia; tundra) Reasoning - Inductive: moves from a particular to general o Use only this in middle childhood - Deductive: moves from a general premise to particular o According to Piaget this doesn’t develop until adolescence Conservation - Children can work out problems in their head- Can understand that things change shape, focus on multiple things at a time. (identity, reversibility, decenter) Information Processing Approach - Executive Function: conscious control of thoughts, emotions, andactions to accomplish goals or solve problems (tell yourself tofocus on something) o Selective attention (ability to direct attention and shut out distractions) o Increase in efficiency of working memory o Metamemory: understanding memory processes (using techniques to facilitate memory) Strategies for Remembering - Mnemonic strategies: techniques to aid memory - External Memory aids (most common): Prompts outside the person (making a list) - Rehearsal: conscious repetition- Organization: mentally placing info into categories for easier recall - Elaboration: making mental association: involving items to be remembered Psychometric Approach - IQ tests - Intelligence Influenced by: o Brain development, Schooling, race/ ethnicity, SES, and culture Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) - Linguistic  pick up languages easily and words of expression (song writers, poets) - Logical mathematical  understand number relationships - Spatial  relationship between things in space and how they should fit (Interior design, architecture, building) - Musical - Bodily- Kinesthetic  athletics; coordination (dancers) - Interpersonal  relationships and working with others (teachers, counselors) - Intrapersonal  pastors, philosophers, theologians- Not all IQ tests adequately measure all different types of intelligence Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg) - Componential: analytic aspect of intelligence - Experiential: insightful or creative - Contextual: practical Language - Understanding of simile and metaphor (takes a while to understand this and sarcasm) - Increase in syntax understanding (complexity of language) - Elaborate sentence structure - Pragmatics: practical use of language to communicate (talk to friends differently than w/ family/ parents) Children with special needs - Intelligence Disorder: IQ less than 70 - Dyslexia: reading achievement lower than predicted by IQ or age- ADHD: compilations of ADHD and ADD; there are different types- Gifted children: IQ higher than 130 - It is important not to label children too early on Book Notes *Includes all bolded/ main information not presented in lecture Rough and Tumble Play - Vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing. Often accompanied by laughing and screaming. (10% of free play consists of this) - Universal; boys participate more than girls - Has important adaptive benefits and establishes dominance w/ peer groups Physical activity and body image - Regular physical activity helps w/ motor skills, weight control, lower blood pressure, enhanced self- esteem and well- being - Body image: descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance becomes important in middle childhood, especially among girls and may develop into eating disorders later on - Fast food is a main contributor to obesity as well as inactivity - Activity levels decrease as children get older - Those with obesity are greater risk for behavior problems, depression, and low self- esteem - Hypertension  increased risk for overweight children as well as heart disease and diabetes Acute and chronic medical conditions- Acute medical conditions- infections, warts, colds, and flu are common during middle childhood - Chronic medical conditions: illnesses or impairments that persist for at least 3 months (physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional) - Asthma- chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing (cases have doubled in recent years) - Diabetes- one of the most common diseases of childhood. Characterized by high levels of glucose in blood resulting from defective insulin production, ineffective insulin action or both. - Accidental death is leading cause of death among school aged children Concrete Operations- 3rd stage of Piagetian cognitive development (age 7-12) - Children develop logical, but not abstract thinking - By 6 or 7 they can count in their head, count on, and solve story problems IQ Tests - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV): Individual intelligence test for school aged children that yields verbal and performance score as well as combined score - Otis-


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