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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 7

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1FAD 3220 Exam 2 Textbook Study Guide*This is just a study guide for the textbook materials. Please remember that all lecture materials are “fair game” for the exam as well.*Chapter 7• Enuresis: Repeated urination in bed or clothing• Motor skills: gross and fine-Gross: Physical skills that involve the use of large muscles-Fine: Physical skills that involve the small motions and eye-hand coordination• Handedness: Preference for using a particular hand• Preoperational stage: In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the second major stage of cognitive development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logico Cognitive advances: o Symbolic function: Piaget’s term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.o Pretend play: Play involving imaginary people and situations; also called fantasy play, dramatic play, or imaginative playo Transduction: Piaget’s term for a preoperational stage child’s tendency to link particular phenomena, whether or not there is logically a casual relationship. Ex- bad behavior caused parents divorceo Animism: Tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive. o Centration: In Piaget’s theory, the tendency for preoperational children to focus on one aspect of the situation and neglect others. o Decenter: Ability to think about several aspects of a situation at one time.o Egocentrism: Inability to consider another person’s point of viewo Conservation: Piaget’s term for awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration as long as nothing as been added or taken away from either object2o Irreversibility: Piaget’s term for a preoperational child’s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions • Information Processing:o Encoding: 1st step of memory processing. In this process information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval.o Storage: putting away of information for later use. 2nd step.o Retrieval: process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage. 3rd step.o Sensory memory: Initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information.o Working memory: Short-term storage of information being actively processed.o Executive function: The conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to solve problems or accomplish goals. o Central executive: In Baddeley’s model, the element of working memory that orders information encoded for transfer to long-term memoryo Long-term memory: Storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods.o Recognition: The ability to identify something encountered beforeo Recall: Ability to reproduce material from memory. • Languageo Fast mapping: Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in a conversationo Grammar and Syntaxo Pragmatics: The practical knowledge of how to use language to communicate.o Social speech: Speech intended to be understood by a listener. o Private speech: Talking aloud to oneself without the intention to communicate with otherso Emergent literacy: Preschooler’s development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that3underlie reading and writingChapter 8• Self concept: sense of self; how we feel about ourselves and guides our actions• Self definition: the way we describe ourselves. o Single representations: In neo-Piagetian terminology, the first stage in development of self definition. Statements about the self are one dimensional. Ex- I like pizza, I’m strong. o Representational mapping: The second step of in development of self definition. Begin to make logical connections between one aspect of himself and another: “I can run fast, and I’m strong. I can also throw a ball really far, I’m going to be on a team some day!” Still expressed in all-or-nothing terms (completely positive).• Real self: The self one actually is• Ideal self: The self one would like to be• Self esteem: The judgement a person makes about his or her self worth. • Initiative vs. guilt: Erikson’s third stage in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with reservations about doing so. • Gendero Gender identity: Awareness, developed in early childhood that one is a male or female. o Gender roles: Behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex.o Gender typing: Socialization process where children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.o Gender stereotypes: Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior. o Theory of sexual selection: Darwin’s theory that gender roles developed in response to men’s and women’s differing reproductive needs. o Identification: In Freudian theory, the process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors of the parent of the same sex.4o Gender constancy: Awareness that one will always be male or female.o Gender schema theory: Bem’s theory that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular cultureo Social cognitive theory: Bandura’s theory- an expansion of social learning theory, holds that children learn gender roles through socialization. • Playo Functional play: Play involving repetitive large muscular movements, such as rolling a ball.o Constructive play: Play involving the use of materials to make something. Ex- blocks or crayon drawing.o Dramatic play: Play involving imaginary situations or people; also termed as pretend play, fantasy play, or imaginative play. o Formal games with rules: organized games with known procedures and penalties. Ex. hopscotch• Parentingo Discipline: Methods of molding children’s character and of teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior. o Corporal punishment: Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control behavior. o Psychological aggressiono Inductive techniques: Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child’s sense of reason and fairness o Power assertion: Intended to stop or discourage bad behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control; it includes demands, threats, withdrawal of


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