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FSU FAD 3220 - Final Exam Study Guide

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FAD 33220 Final Exam Study Guide (Ch 15-19)Chapter 15: Physical & Cognitive Development in Moodle Adulthood Middle Age A social construct in industrial societies. Not recognized by some cultures, such as upper-caste Hindus in rural India (traditional society) The concept of “middle adulthood” has developed as life-expectancy has increased. In the book, middle adulthood is defined in chronological terms as the years btwn age 40 & 45. Can be a time of loss, but also a time of growth. Physical changes “Use it or lose it!” Behavioral and lifestyle factors dating from youth can affect the likelihood, timing, and extent of physical age. The more people do, the more they can do. People who become active early in life reap the benefits of more stamina and more resilience after age 60. Loss in muscle tone, flexibility, stamina, speed, and dexterity due to genetic aging but also because of decreased use or activity. People who lead sedentary lives lose muscle tone & energy & become even less inclined to exert themselves physically. With age, comes a gradual decrease in basal metabolism (use of energy to maintain vital functions), and therefore a decrease in endurance. Vision changes Presbyopia: age-related, progressive loss of eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects due to loss of elasticity in the lens. Myopia: nearsightedness. (also increases through middle age) Age-related visual problems occur mainly in five areas:  Near vision Dynamic vision (reading moving signs) Sensitivity to light Visual search (for example, locating a sign) Speed of processing visual information Visual acuity (sharpness of vision) Because of changes in the pupil of the eye, middle-aged people may need about one-third more brightness to compensate for the loss of light reaching the retina. Because the lens of the eyes become progressively less flexible, its ability to shift focus diminishes. Hearing Changes Presbycusis: age-related, gradual loss of hearing, which accelerates after age 55, especially with regard to sounds at higher frequencies. Hearing loss proceeds twice as quickly in men as in women. Today, a preventable increase in hearing loss is occurring among 45- to 64-year-olds due to continuous or sudden exposure to noise at work, loud concerts, through earphones, etc. Taste & Smell Sensitivity to taste and smell decreases. Food may seem more bland. Because taste buds become less sensitive and the number of olfactory cells diminishes. Women tend to retain these senses longer than men. Sensitivity may change to different types of food. One person may become less sensitive to salty foods, another to sweet, bitter, or sour foods. Brain functioning Declines in reaction time and multitasking Inability to filter• The ability to ignore distractions gradually declines with age Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon A person knows they know a word, but cannot access it from memory Becomes more frequent in midlife  Proves that there’s actual physical/structural change in the brain. Myelin (the fatty sheath that lines our nerve axons and helps impulses move more quickly through our brains) begins to break down with age. Brain fires impulses more slowly (work slower) Structural/Systemic Changes Skin thins, and becomes less taut & smooth. Because the layer of fat below the surface becomes thinner, collagen molecules more rigid, and elastin fibers more brittle. Hair thins (due to a slowed replacement rate) Hair grays (due to a reduced production of melanin) Gain weight As a result of accumulation of body fat  Lose height Due to shrinkage of the intervertebral disks Bone density decreases (bones become thinner & more brittle) More calcium is absorbed than replaced Occurs twice as rapidly in women as in men  Sexual & Reproductive Functioning Sexual enjoyment continues throughout adult life. Menopause: cessation of menstruation and of ability to bear children (btwn ages 45-55). Symptoms: hot flashes, changes in sexual desire, depression, moodiness, tension. Not all empirically supported• Research suggests that some of the presumed symptoms of menopausal syndrome may be related more to other natural changes of aging than to menopause itself. Men experience decreases in testosterone and sperm count. Physical health Most middle-aged adults report that they are healthy. Common health problems: Hypertension: chronically high blood pressure.• Almost 41% of adults ages 55-64 suffer from hypertension. Cancer: has replaced heart disease as the leading cause of death between ages 45 to 64. Heart disease: improvements in treatment of heart attack patients has decreased numbers Diabetes: disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that converts sugar, starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life.• Prevalence doubled in the 1990s. • Type 1: juvenile-onset; insulin-dependent; the level of blood sugar rises b/c the body does not produce enough insulin• Type 2: mature-onset (age 30); glucose levels rise because the cells lose their ability to use the insulin the body produces Factors that affect health Smoking/drinking On average, Americans who smoke, are overweight, and have high blood pressure and high blood sugar are likely to shave 4 years off their life expectancy. Weight Excess weight in middle age increases the risk of impaired health and death. Exercise/diet U.S. adults ages 51 to 61: those who engaged in regular, moderate or vigorous exercise were about 35% less likely to die in the next 8 years than those with sedentary lifestyles. SES People with low socioeconomic status tend to have poorer health, shorter life expectancy, more activity limitations due to chronic disease, lower well-being, and more restricted access to health care than people with higher SES. Race/ethnicity Hispanics have the highest prevalence rates of being overweight (84.2%) . Non-hispanic blacks have the highest prevalence rates of obesity (34.9%). Overall death rates in middle age are higher for African Americans. Gender Women have a higher life expectancy than men and lower death rates throughout life. Female health issues Osteoporosis: condition in which the bones become thin and brittle as a result of rapid


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