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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 15- Physical and Cognitive development

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Chapter 15- Physical and Cognitive development in Middle AdulthoodChanges in Senses:Vision:-Age –related visual problems occur in 5 areas1. near vision2. dynamic vision (reading moving signs)3. sensitivity to light4. visual search (locating a sign)5. Speed of processing visual information-Reading glasses are often needed for presbyopiaPresbyopia= age- related, progressive loss of the eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects due to the loss of elasticity in the lens-Myopia = nearsidenessMay need bifocals and trifocals in which lenses for reading is combined with lenses to see far away. Adjust eyes to see near and far objectsHearing:-speeds up in the fifties -PresbycusisAge-related, gradual loss of hearing, which accelerates after the age of 55-hearing loss occurs twice as quickly I men than in womenThis is changing now because women are doing jobs that only men did in the 20th centurySuch as construction -hearing loss due to environmental cues can be avoided by using ear plugs or special muffsTaste and Smell:-generally declines in midlife-food may seem more blandTaste buds become less sensitive Number of olfactory cells decline-women tend to retain these senses longer than men-some people become less sensitive to salty foods, some to sweet, bitter, or salty foods-it can be different for each individualChanges in Appearance:-Skin may become less taut and smooth due to:Layer of fat underneath the skin becomes thinnerCollagen molecules become more rigidElastin fibers become more brittle-hair is thinnerSlowed hair replacement rate-hair greysProduction of melanin, a pigmenting agent, declines-midlife people tend to gain weightAccumulation of body fatInactivity-midlife people tend to lose height Due to shrinkage of the intervertebral disks-bone density tends to declineBone loss is a cause of more calcium being absorbed than replacedBone lost accelerates in the 50’s and 60’sTwice as quickly in women than in men and it can lead to osteoporosisMenopause:-it is the cessation of menstruation and of the ability to bear childrenMeaning women completely stop ovulating-occurs one year after the last menstrual period (generally)-average age = 50 to 52Most women experience it between ages 45 to 55-it is a process called menopausal transitionMid 30’s to mid 40’s= women’s production of mature ova begin to declineOvaries produce less female hormone estrogenPrior to and during the first year of menopause is called perimenopause-aka the climacteric, or “change of life”-menstruation becomes irregular, less flow, and longer time between each menstrual period-if the 19th century it was viewed as a disease-today it is viewed more positivelyTransition to second part of adulthood; personal growth-symptoms: hot flashes, night sweats sudden sensations of heat due to erratic changes in hormone secretion. This affects the temperature control in the center of the brain-treatment:- low-dose administration of artificial estrogen : NO LONGER POPULAR because of serious risk factors-nonhormonal therapies-phytomedicines-vitamin c-black cohosh and other natural or herbal preparationsStress in Middle age:-Stress: response to physical and psychological demands-Stressors: perceived and environmental demands that may produce stress-people in early middle age tend to experience higher/more frequent levels of stress and different types of stressors compared to younger or older adults-Chief stressors or certain age groups35-54: family relationships, work, money, housing18-34: stressed by unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, losing sleep, and skipping meals55 and up: health and age related stress-stress for midlife tends to come from role changes Career transitioningGrown children leaving homeRenegotiation of family relationships-women report more extreme stress than men-classic stress response = fight or flight (primarily masculine)-women’s response is more so tend and befriend = nurturant activities that promote safetyCognitive Development in real life:-Fluid intelligenceType of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, that is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influencesEXAMPLE- discovering a pattern in a sequence of figures-Crystallized intelligenceType of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, involving the ability to remember and use learned information; it is largely dependent on education and culture-Fluid intelligence= peak in twenties-working memory capacity also begins to decline at this age-EncapsulationIn Hoyers terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specific knowledge systems, making knowledge more readily accessible With experience, become experts at problem solvingNotice different aspects of a situation-Integrative thoughtImportant feature of postformal thoughtMature adults integrate logic with intuition and emotion; and new information with what they already knowChapter 16: Psychosocial Development in Middle AdulthoodIndividuation:-Jungs term for emergence of the true self through balancing or integration of conflicting parts of the personality-Two necessary/ difficult tasks of midlifeGiving up the image of the youthAcknowledging moralityGenerativity vs. Stagnation:-Erikson’s seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle aged adults develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation (a sense of inactivity or lifelessness)-GenerativityEriksons term for concern of mature adults for guiding the next generationWomen report higher levels of generativityEx. Volunteering for community service or a political causePeople who are happy with their life are more likely to be generativeInteriority:-Neugarten’s term for a concern with inner life (introversion or introspection) , which usually appear in middle ageMidlife review:Can be a time of stocktaking, yielding new insights into the self and spurring midcourse correction in the design and trajectory of one’s life-introspective examination that often occur in midlife, leading to reappraisal and revision of values and priorities-can be dependent on developmental deadlines such as child bearingIdentity Assimilation and Accommodation:-identity assimilationWhitbournes term for effort to fit new experience into existing self-concept-Identity accommodationWhitbourne’s term for adjusting the self-concept to fit the new experience-overuse of either is unhealthyOveruse of


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