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FSU FAD 3220 - Study Guide

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

10 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

22 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

25 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

22 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

22 pages

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

88 pages

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General body growth trends• Growing rapidly between 3 and 6 years old• Boys tend to be taller and heavier• 2-3 inches/ year, 4-6 lbs/year• Sleep o night terrorso enuresiso encouraging good sleep habits• Waken abruptly from deep sleep; scream or sit up in bed; not really awake (3 and 13 years old; boys more than girls)• Repeated urination in clothing or bed• Establish regular bed time, no loud noises, don’t feed or rock child, sticker chart, later bedtime• gross motor, fine motor skills• Gross: large muscles for physical activity (riding tricycle)• Fine: physical skills involving small muscles and eye-hand coordination (cutting paper)• handedness • Preference for using a certain hand• preventing obesity • Start diet as a child while diet is still subject to parental influence• Proportion control• Regularly eating evening mean as a family• Adequate amounts of sleep• Less than 2 hours of tv/day• healtho and SESo smoke• Lower SES= higher risk of illness, injury and death.• Most damage caused during development. Increased risk of bronchitis, pneumonia and ear problems• Piageto Animism, centration, egocentrism, conservation • Animism: Tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive• Centration: Tendency of pre-operational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others• Egocentrism: inability to consider another person’s point of view• Conservation: awareness that two objects are equal as long as something isn’t added or taken away• Memoryo Recognition and recall• Recognition: Ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus• Recall: Reproduce a material from memory• Vygostkyo ZPDo scaffolding• Difference between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with help (zone of proximal development)• Temporary support to help a child master a task• Vocabularyo Fast mappingo social speecho private speech• Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it in conversation• Speech intended to be understood by a listener• Talking to oneself without the intent to communicate• Emergent literacy • Preschooler’s development of skills and attitudes that help with reading and writing (ABC puzzle)• Erikson • Initiative vs. guilto Need to deal with conflicting feelings about the selfo Arises from growing desire to plan and do activities with reservations about doing so• Gendero And stereotypeso Gender schemao Social learningo And TV• “All females are passive and dependent”; “all males are aggressive and independent”• Children socialize themselve’s in their gender roles by making up in their minds what it means to be female or male• Children imitate models, often parents or other adults and peers•• Parenting Styles • Authoritarian: Parenting style emphasizing control and self-regulation• Permissive: Parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation• Authoritative: Style blending respect for a child’s individuality while stillinstalling social values• Aggressiono Influences on• Instrumental: to achieve a goal• Overt (direct): openly directed at its target• Relational: damaging to someone’s reputation, relationships, etc.• Heritable, low self-control, environmentally influenced, stressful atmosphere, culture, modeling, media• Siblings and only children• Younger siblings more likely to take risks• Prosocial and play-oriented behaviors more likely among siblings than hostility and rivalry• Children who are aggressive with their siblings are more likely to be aggressive with their friends• Only children more motivated to achieve and have a higher self esteem• Growth Trends • 2-3 inches/year between 6 and 11 years old and double their weight• African American children grow faster• Mexican girls have highest body fat• Amount of sleep • 10 hours- 9 years old• 9 hours- 13 years old• Rough and Tumble Play• Play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing while laughing and screaming• Obesity • 17% of children from 2 to 19, 16.5% are overweight• More likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents• Behavior problems, low self-esteem, high blood pressure, diabetes• Accidents • Leading cause of death among school aged children• Piaget – conservation • Concrete operations can figure out conservation problems• Pre-operational can’t• Understanding identity: clay is still the same, even if it is a different shape• Reversibility: clay can change back into the other shape• Around 9 or 10 years old for clay to understand conservation of weight; 12 before understanding liquid• Memory o Selective attentiono Mnemonic strategies• The ability to direct one’s attention and shut out distractions• Inhibitory control: voluntary suppression of unwanted responses• Techniques to aid memoryo External memory aids: prompting by something outside the person (making a list)o Rehearsal: conscious repetitiono Organization: grouping by categories (mammals, reptiles, etc)o Elaboration: associating items to be remembered with something else (musical staff, EGBDF, “every good boy does fine”)• IQ – Gardner and Sternber• Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: each person has several distinct forms of intelligence• Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: three elements of intelligenceo Componential: analytic aspect (efficiently processing info; how to solve problems)o Experimental: insightful or creative aspect of intelligence (thinking originally)o Contextual: practical aspect (size up a situation and decide what to do)• Reading o Phonetic o Whole language• Approach to teaching that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words (Research proves that this is better)• Approach to teaching that emphasizes visual retrieval and use of context clues (naturally learning)• NCLB • No Child Left Behind; students can transfer out of shools that do not meet certain requirements• Gifted children • IQ of 130 or higher• Grow up in enriched family environments, parents often have high expectations for their gifted children, “unusual brains that enable rapid learning in a particular domain”• Erikson • A major determinant of self-esteem is children’s view of rheir capacity for productive work• Parenting – co regulationo Worko Poverty• Co-regulation: transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise oversight,


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