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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Children do better in families with two continuously married biological parents.Happily married even betterInstability may be more harmful than family structureTypes of Family by StructureSingle parent (20%)Step family (10-15%)Cohabitative Family (4%)Same Sex parent family--??Adoptive family (~2%)26%-- live in household w/o a father13% -- never seen their fatherDivorce1 million children involved each yearAdjustment depends on child age, maturity, gender, temperament, and psychosocial adjustment before the divorce. Girls adjust better than boys.Father (or nonresidential parent) contact.Loyalty conflicts, self-blame, parental conflict. A drop in economic status.Gay and Lesbian FamiliesApprox.. 9 million childrenResearch shows no differences inPhysical and emotional healthIntelligence, adjustment, sense of self, social and sexual functioningNo more likely to report GLBT orientationChild and Peer GroupLearn how to get along with othersLearn gender appropriate behaviors. How to follow rules, or compromise.May reinforce prejudiceUnfavorable attitudes towards others outside ones own groupMay foster antisocial tendencies. Doing things against societal normsFAD3320Exam 2 Study GuideLifespan and Development Test: March 5, 2013Chapters 7-10Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early ChildhoodEarly Childhood: Age 3-6 Sleep Patterns and Problems • About 11 hours of sleep per nighto They give up naps by age 5• Problems o 1 in 10 have sleeping problems o They can be caused by accidental activation of the brains motor control system, or by incomplete arousal from a deep sleep.o Night terrors  They don’t remember in the morning. They appear to wake abruptly early in the night from a deep sleep in a state of agitation. They are not conscious of anything, and parents are supposed to let them run their course. It can impact the parents more because they are actively dealing with it, but can wake or help them. They affect boys more often than girls o Nightmares  They are brought on by a heavy meal before sleep, excitement throughout the day, and watching a scary movie. If they become more frequent it could be excessive stress. o Enuresis:  Wetting the bed, repeated involuntary wetting the bed, more commonly among boys. This is when the child is already potty trained. They tend to outgrow it by age 8, and shouldn’t be punished. Gross and fine motor skills o Brain Growtho Age 3: 90% of the brain is adult brain weight o Age 6: 95%o During age 3-6; the prefrontal cortex: regulates planning and organizing activities, is developed. Like a tea party in their head for example. o Motor skills Gross motor skills: are physical skills that involve large muscles.  Running  Jumping Climbing o Great advances in gross motor skills. o Most children under age 6 are NOT ready for organized sports; social development isn’t quite there. o Taking them outside with less activities that are less structured allow them to be more physicalFine Motor Skills: small muscle groups and hand-eye coordination  Much more responsibility for personal care. Such as buttoning their own shirt, drawing pictures, and tying shoelaces.FAD3320Exam 2 Study GuideSystem of Action:  Increasingly complex combinations of skills, permitting a wider or more precise range of movement. Combining things that they know with new abilities. Preoperational Thought (Piaget)o Preoperational Stage: (2-7 years): second major stage of development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic (what piaget called it)o Expansion in the use of symbolic thoughto They have trouble following steps that don’t actually see happening. o Symbolic Function: using mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.  Examples • Deferred imitation: observed someone else doing the action and do it when they are not actually doing it. • Pretend/ fantasy/ dramatic/ imaginative play • Language • Better able to get their point across • Can talk about things that aren’t actually present o Understanding in Preoperational ThoughtCausationo Transduction: tendency to mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is a logically casual relationship.  Example: they have a tantrum then the parents get divorced thinking that it is their fault, when it isn’t.  Causes them to adhere to strict rules rather that probabilityCategorization/ Classification o Animism: attribute life to objects that are not alive  Things that don’t have emotions, human behavior or animal behavioro Understanding Numbers  Ordinaily: comparing quantities; as early as 12 months• Bigger or smaller; more or less Cardinality: counting; numbers to objects Number sense: counting, number knowledge, number transformations, estimation, number patternsImmature Aspects of Preoperational Thought  Centration and Decentering o Centration: tendency of children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others  Examples: • Decenter: to ting simultaneously about several aspects of a situation. Such as Christmas time, and how many presents they get.  Egocentrism: inability to consider another persons point of view; taking other peoples perspectives o Influence on cause and effectFAD3320Exam 2 Study Guideo Time out and their sad, but then they see someone else who is sad and think maybe they were in time-out too.  Conservation o Two things that are equal remain so if their appearances is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away.  The same liquid in the bottle as in the glass Only focusing on how tall the cup is or how long the play-do is. What is conserving, so the liquid is the volume, the child thinks it is changing.  The last quarter example is the area and how long the rows are.  Irreversibility: o Failure to understand that an operation or action can go two or more ways Types of and influences on Memory  Information Processing: Memoryo Encoding Storage  Retrieval  Encoding: information into a folder; can be irrelevant information  Storage: putting folder into a filling cabinet; sensory information Retrieval: search for the file when needed. o Childhood Memory:  Recognition vs. Recall  Recognizing something that is in front of you and linking it to something you have in your memory. Telling someone what they did in class by being… remember with the glitter in class today?  Recall is actually bringing to


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