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FAD3220 Chapter 13: Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Class Notes: Adulthood - What are the markers for adulthood? o Sexual maturity o Legal adulthood is recognized by different privileges at different ages > buy tobacco and alcohol, vote, marry, enter into contracts, etc. o Psychological maturity Emerging Adulthood - Age of late teens to mid- to- late twenties - Three Criteria: o Accepting responsibility for oneself o Making independent decisions o Becoming financially independent Physical Development - Health o Most say they are in good health o Accidents are leading cause of death o Overweight and too little exercise o Highest poverty rate and lowest level of health insurance of any age group Behavior and health - Cholesterol, fat, and heart disease - Cancer o Soy-based food for women linked to decreases in breast cancer o Fish form men linked to decreases in colorectal cancer - Obesity: linked to lifestyle (behaviors) rather than knowledge Other Health Issues - Exercise - Sleep (7-8 hours) - Smoking  this age group most likely to smoke than any other - Alcohol use o Peaks during emerging adulthood o Binge drinking, drinking and driving, risky behavior than can lead to HIV infection and drug use Relationships and Health - Social relationships are vital to health and well- beingo Social integration: active engagement in a broad range of social relationships, activities and roles - Social Support: material, informational and psychological resources derived from the social network, which a person can rely on for help and coping with stress. Marriage and Health - Marriage has health benefits, especially for men - Married people, especially in young adulthood, tend to be healthier than those who are single, divorced, never married, widowed, etc. - Married people (especially husbands) are more likely to be obese Mental Health - Some mental health disorders have a genetic component, which is “signaled” to occur in early adulthood. - Stressors of being out on one’s own and making own decisions can influence mental health problems o Alcoholism, drug use and abuse o Depression Sexual Behavior and Attitudes - Less adults are waiting to have sex until marriage (75% have had sex by age 20) - Compared to older age groups, emerging adults: o Tend to have more sexual partners o Have sex less frequently o Have more casual sex Cognitive Development - Reflective thinking: logical thinking involving continuous, active evaluation ofinformation and beliefs in light of evidence and implications (thinking about your life through reflection on past, and current and future goals) o Emerges between 20 and 25 o Not all adults reach the skill to apply this thinking to all types of problems, but most adults develop the capacity for it. - Post- formal thought: mature thinking that relies on subjective experience, intuition and logic. Useful in dealing w/ ambiguity, uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, and compromise o Sees shades of grey vs. black and white o Useful when emotions are involved o It’s best to just “sleep on it” Emotional intelligence - The ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions - An important component of effective, intelligent behavior- Measure by use of the test: MSCEIT (Mayer- Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) Moral Reasoning- Women think less about abstract justice and fairness than men do and more about their responsibilities to specific people (C. Gilligan) - Other researchers found no gender differences - Young adults able to live w/ moral contradictions Book notes: *Reflect all bolded/ important information not presented in lecture Health - Risky drinking- consuming more than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks on any single day for men, and more than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks on a single dayfor women. o Those who practice frequent risky drinking are at risk for alcoholism and liver disease, as well as physical, mental, and social problems - Income, education, race/ ethnicity also affect health - Alcoholism: chronic disease involving dependence on use of alcohol, causing interference w/ normal functioning and fulfillment of obligations. - Highest risk of STIs are among 18 to 25 years old Sexual and Reproductive Issues - Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Disorder that produces physical discomfort and emotional tension for up to 2 weeks before period. Symptoms may include: fatigue, headaches, swelling/ tenderness or breasts, bloating, nausea, cramps, constipation, food cravings, weight gain, anxiety, depression,mood swings, tearfulness and difficulty concentrating or remembering o Many people (85%) have symptoms, but only 5-10% are actually diagnosable. o Cramping is not the same as PMS. PMS usually only occurs in women over 30 - Dysmenorrhea: painful cramps caused by contractions in the uterus and can be treated w/ ibuprofen and affects 90% of women. - Infertility: occurs in 7% of couples. It is the inability to conceive after 1 year of trying. o Most common cause in men is low sperm count. o Most common cause in women is failure to produce ova, mucus in cervix and disease of uterine lining College - During college years most go from rigidity to flexibility, and overall freely chosen commitments. Instead of seeing truth w/ one right answer, they are able to accept a wide range of ideas and viewpoints- Commitment within relativism is achieved when they can make their own judgments and choose their own beliefs and values despite uncertainty and recognition of other valid possibilities. - College entrance is increasing, but finishing has not. 1:4 finish college in 5 years. - Substantive complexity: degree to which a person’s work requires thought and independent judgment.o Challenge of this type of work helps person’s flexibility in coping w/ cognitive demands - Spillover hypothesis: hypothesis that there is a carryover of cognitive gains from work to leisure that explains the positive relationship between activities in the quality of intellectual


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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 13

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