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FSU FAD 3220 - Exam 2

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FAD 3220 Exam 2 StudyguideChapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early ChildhoodSleep patterns• 11 hours of sleep per night• Start to give up napsSleep problems• Frequent waking, sleep talking, night terrors and nightmare are common• Enuresis: wetting the bed, occurs in 10 to 15% of 5 year olds, more common in boysMotor Skills• Great advances in gross motor skills: Physical skills that involve large muscles Example: running, jumping, climbing• Less structured play, or “free play” is better than organized sports• Fine motor skills : small muscles and eye-hand coordinationo Ex. Buttoning shirts, drawing pictures, tying shoelaces• Systems of action : increasingly complex combinations of skills, permitting a wider or more precise range of motion and control of the environment• Handedness , or which hand is preferred, is usually evident by age 3, reflecting the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain.• Kellogg’s research in stages of art production, which reflect fine motor coordination and brain development, are the scribbling, shape, design, and pictorial stages. Cognitive Development: Piagetian Approach• Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years): second major stage of development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic– Expansion in the use of symbolic thought• Symbolic Function : using mental representations (words, number, images) to which a child has attached meaningo Allows children to reflect on people, objects, and events that are not physically present.o Deferred imitation : reproduction of an observed behavior after the passage of time by calling up a stored symbol of ito Pretend play : play involving imaginary people or situationso Language: phonetic symbols that convey meaningUnderstanding in Preoperational Thought• At age 3 most children understand the relationship between pictures, maps, and scale models and what they represent. By 5 years nearly all children should be able to use a simple map to locate objects.• Causation o Piaget states that children cannot logically link cause and effect. However, children can link cause and effect with regards to familiar situations.o Transduction: tendency to mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is a logically causal relationship Example: divorce• Identities : People and many things are basically the same, even if they change in shape, form, size, etc. Example: If mom takes off her glasses, she’s still mom• Categorization / Classification: children make categories in their mind and may overgeneralize new information based on those categories. Example: Disney movies, teachers are all nice• Animism : Attributes life to objects that are not aliveo Might display when they’re asked about something they don’t knowPreoperational Thought• Understanding of Numberso Ordinality : comparing quantities By four, a child can say more or less, bigger or smaller Rudimentary arithmetico Cardinality : countingo Number sense, counting, number knowledge, number transformation, estimation, number patternsImmature Aspects of Preoperational Thought• Centration : tendency of children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect otherso Focus on states rather than transformationso Example: thinking that a taller container has more water in it• Decenter : to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation• Egocentrism : inability to consider another person’s point of viewo Influence on cause and effecto Kids have trouble taking others perspectives• Conservation : ability to recognize that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is taken away.• Irreversibility : failure to understand that an operation or action can go two or more ways.Theory of Mind: • The awareness of the broad range of human mental states.• Between 3 to 5 children understand that thinking takes place inside the mind. • Social cognition: the recognition that other people have mental states.• Children have difficulty distinguishing between appearance and reality and fantasy and reality.Information Processing: Memory• Encoding  Storage  Retrieval• Capacity for memory is increasing• Young children focus on the details of a memory while older children can remember the general gist of the event – Encoding : Information into a folder– Storage : Putting folder into filing cabinet– Retrieval : Search for file when neededChildhood Memory• Sensory Memory: initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information, doesn’t change over the lifespan• Working Memory : short-term storage of information being actively processed, increases in this stage• Recognition vs. Recall• Recognition - multiple choice test• Recall - open ended question• Children rely on recognition because it’s easier than recall, kids need more prompting to remember• 3 Types of Memories– Generic : familiar, repeated events, general, not specific– Episodic : particular event, specific time/event, temporary memory, fades quickly, helps us form generic memories, easier to remember a first time– Autobiographical : distinct experiences that hold significance• ex. Injury, birth of a siblingInfluences on Memory Retention• Children tend to focus on details, contributes to type of memory• Emotional impact of the event• More likely to remember active participation– Did vs. saw• Social Interaction Model : based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which proposes that children construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events. – Low elaborative- adults repeat the memory to a child– High elaborative-ask questions to the child to trigger memories, remember betterIntelligence: Psychometric and Vygotskian Approaches• The two most commonly used psychometric intelligence tests for young children are the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. • Intelligence test scores have risen in industrial countries..• Intelligence test scores may be influenced by a number of factors, including home environment and SES.• Zone of Proximal Development : vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.• Scaffolding: temporary support to help a child master a taskLanguage


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