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FSU FAD 3220 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Exam 2

Exam 2

22 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Test #2

Test #2

14 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

25 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

22 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

22 pages

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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FAD Exam 2 Study GuideChapter 7• General Body Growth Trends: children grow rapidly between ages 3 and 6 but less quickly than before, At age 3, children lose their babyish roundness and take on the slender appearance of childhood. Ab muscles develop, trunk, arms and legs grow longer, body becomes more proportionate. Girls have more fatty tissue, bones become harder• Sleep: Average is 11 hours a night an no naps by age 5o Night terrors: Awoken abruptly early in the night from a deep sleep in a state of agitation. The child may scream and sit up in bed, breathing rapidly and staring or thrashing out but is not really awake. The child does not remember this the next day. Occurs mostly between the ages of 3 and 13 and affects more boys than girls.o Enuresis: Repeated, involuntary urination at night by children old enough to be expected to have bladder control. This is most common in boys. This is common and is not serious. o Encouraging good sleeping habits: Parents should establish a regular and unrushed bedtime routine with 20 minutes of quiet activities before, don’t allow scary or loud shows, keep a nightlight, don’t feed or rock at bedtime, stay calm, don’t yield to requests, offer rewards, don’t send to bed too early, take child back to bed and be firm and consistent, reassure after nightmare, do not wake up after night terror• Gross motor, fine motor skills: Preschool children make great advances in this. Gross motor skills include physical skills that involve large muscles. Fine motor skills involve small muscles and eye-hand coordination. These help children with personal care. Children begin to combine skills and produce systems of action which are complex combinations of skills• Handedness: The preference for using one hand over the other. This is usually evident around age 3. The left hemisphere is usually dominant, so most people are right handed. Boys most likely to be left handed. • Preventing obesity: Tendency towards obesity can be hereditary but the main factors are environmental . Preschoolers need fewer calories in proportion to their weight. A key to preventing obesity may be to make sure children are served appropriate portions and not to force them to eat all of their food. Children should eat regular meals especially in the evening with their family, getting a good amount of sleep and watch less than 2 hours of TV a day• Healtho Undernutrition: underlying cause in more than half of all deaths before age 5, affects growth, well being, cognitive and psychosocial developmento Food allergies: most from milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, soy and wheat And SES: The lower the SES the greater the risk of illness, injury and death. More likely to have chronic conditions and activity limitations, lack health insurance. Unmet medical needs Smoke: The potential damage caused by exposure to tobacco is greatest during the early years of life. It can cause increased risk of respiratory infections, ear problems, asthma, slow lung growth• Piaget: Early childhood as preoperational stage, advances in symbolic thought  Animism: Tendency to attribute life to non alive objects Centration: Tendency to focus on one aspect and neglect others Egocentrism: Inability to consider another persons point of view Conservation: Awareness that two objects that are equal in measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added or taken away• Memory: Sensory and Working Memoryo Recognition: Ability to identify a previously encountered stimuluso Recall: Ability to reproduce material from memory• Vygotsky: children learn by internalizing the results of interactions with adultso ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development. Gap between what they are already able to do and what they are not quite ready to accomplish by themselves. Can be assessed through dynamic tests. o Scaffolding: Temporary support to help a child master a task• Vocabularyo Fast mapping: Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversationo Social Speech: Speech intended to be understood by a listenero Private Speech: Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others. Piaget thought this was egocentric, Vygotsky didn’t. • Emergent Leaning: Preschoolers development of skills, knowledge and attitudes that underlie reading and writing Chapter 8• Erickson: Initiative Vs. Guilt. 3rd stage in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with reservations about doing so• Gender: Identity: awareness of ones femaleness or malenesso Stereotypes: Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior. Example: All females are passive and dependent, All males are aggressive and independent. These peak at age 5o Gender Schema: Theory proposed by Bern, that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of indo about what it means to be able or female in a particular culture. These promote gender stereotypes. Can then learn things consistent with their schema and may exaggerate it. o Social Learning: children acquire gender roles by imitating models and being rewarded for gender-appropriate behavior. Social learning has lost its power, now the newer model is known as social cognitive (bandura). This theory states that observation enables children o learn much about gender-typed behaviors before performing them. Children then select or create their environments. o TV: is a major format for the transmission of cultural attitudes. Children who watch more television will become more gender-typed by imitating stereotyped models they see on screen. • Play: very important for childreno Cognitive levels:  Functional play/locomotor play: play involving repetitive large muscular movements Constructive play/object play: Play involving use of objects or materials to make something Dramatic play/pretend play: play involving imaginary people or situations. Peaks during pre school All these may strengthen development of dense connections in the brain and help with abstract thought Also helps with social and linguistic competence and theory of mindo Social levels: as children get older their play becomes more social Unoccupied behavior: the child does not seem to be playing but watches Onlooker: spends time watching and asks questions but does not play Solitary independent: child plays alone with toys that are


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