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FSU FAD 3220 - Test #2

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Chapter 7

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Exam 2

Exam 2

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Test #2

Test #2

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Test #2

Test #2

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Exam 3

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Exam 3

Exam 3

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1FAD 3220 Test #2Chapter 7• Enuresis- repeated urination in clothing or in bedo not unusual. 10-15% of five year olds, more commonly boys wet the bed regularly while sleeping deeply. More than half outgrow this at 8 years old. • Gross motor skills- physical skills that involve the large muscleso Running and jumping. Their bones and muscles are stronger and their lung capacity is greater, they can run, jump, and climb farther and faster. Most children under age 6 are not ready to take part in any organized sport. Physical development flourishes best in active, unstructured free play. • Fine motor skills- physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye- hand coordination. o Buttoning shirts and drawing pictures, involve hand and small- muscle coordination. Gains in these skills allow young children to take more responsibility for their personal care. • Handedness- preference for using a particular hando Evident by about age three. Most people favor the right side. It is not only clear – cut. Not everyone prefers one hand over the other one. • Preoperational stage- second major stage of cognitive development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic.o Ages 2 – 7. Characterized by a great expansion in the use of symbolic thought, or representational ability. o Symbolic function- ability to use mental representations to which a child has attached meaning Symbols help children to remember and think about things that are not physically present. Preschool show symbolic function through the growth of differed imitation, pretend play, and language. Ex: it’s hot outside little kid wants ice cream. They know that ice cream helps with the heat. They don’t have to see an open freezer door.2o Pretend play- play involving imaginary people and situations, also called fantasy play, dramatic play or imaginative play.  Children may make an object, such as a doll, represent, or symbolize, something else such as a person. o Transduction- preoperational child’s tendency to mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is a logically casual relationship. Preoperational children cannot yet reason logically about cause and effect so they reason by transduction. Ex: Luis may think that his bad thoughts or behavior caused his own or his sisters illness or his parents divorce. o Animism- tendency to attribute life to objects that are not aliveo Centration- the tendency of preoperational children to focus on one thing and ignore everything else.  Can limit young children’s ability about social and physical relationships. o Decenter- to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation. According to Piaget, preschoolers come to illogical conclusions because they cant decenter. o Egocentrism- Piagets term for inability to consider another persons point of view. A form of centration. They center so much on their own point of view that they can not take in another. Three year olds still think the universe centers around them. o Conservation- awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object. ex. – amount of liquid in the two containers. Different sizes but they hold the same amount of water. o Irreversibility-failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.3 Once a child can imagine restoring the original state of the water by pouring it back into the other glass, he will realize the amount of water in both glasses must be the same. Information Processingo Encoding- process by which information is prepared for long- term storage and later retrieval. It’s like putting information in a folder in memory; it attaches a code, or label, to the information so that it will be easier to find when needed. Events are encoded along with information about the context in which they are encountered. o Storage- retention of information in memory for future use. Putting the folder away in the filing cabinet o Retrieval- process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage.  Child searches for file and takes it out. o Sensory memory- initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information. Temporary holding tank for incoming sensory information. Shows little change from infancy on. Without encoding sensory memory fades quickly. o Working memory- short-term storage of information being actively processed. Information being encoded or retrieved is kept in the working memory. Sometimes called short term memory. short term storehouse for information a person is actively working on; trying to understand, remember or think about. o Executive function- conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems. growth of working memory permits the development of executive function. Enables children to plan and carry out goal- directed mental activity. Changes in executive function around ages 2-5 enable children to make up and use complex rules for solving problems.4o Central executive- element of working memory that controls the processing of information  Orders information encoded for transfer to long- term memory. Temporarily expand the capacity of working memory by moving information into two separate subsidiary systems while the central executive is occupied with other tasks. o Long- term memory- storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods. Storehouse of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods of time. o Recognition- ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus. Preschool students do better with this o Recall- ability to reproduce material from memory. Language  Fast mapping- process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.• Rapid expansion of vocab.  Grammar and syntax- the ways children combine syllables into words, and words into sentences, grow increasily sophisticated during early childhood. Between ages 4-5, sentences average four to five words. 5-7 speech has become adult like.  Pragmatics- practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes. • how to use language to communicate. Knowing how to ask for things, how to tell a story or joke, how to begin and continue a conversation, and how to adjust comments to the


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