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FSU FAD 3220 - Chapter 12

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Chapter 12• Erikson • Identity vs. Identity Confusiono Fifth stage of psychosocial developmento An adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, including the role that he or she is to play in societyo Identity vs role confusion• Marcia • Identity status- crisis and commitmento Identity status- states of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitmento Crisis- period of conscious decision making related to identity formationo Commitment- personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs• Identity Achievemento Crisis leading to commitment Choosing what career path to take and sticking with it• Foreclosureo Commitment without crisis Accepting someone else’s plans for your own life• Moratoriumo Crisis with no commitment yet Wanting to have a girlfriend but not being able to develop a close relationship• Identity diffusiono No commitment, no crisis Unhappy and lonely; no plan for the future and avoiding any commitments to it• Sexualityo Early vs. lateo Avg. age for boys and girlso Risk takingo Use of contraceptiveso Information about sex – who do they get it from?o Preventing pregnancy• Consistent sexual, romantic and affectionate interest, either heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual• Homosexuals experience more identity confusion• Average age of a first crush is 10 years oldo 77% of young people have had sex bu theage of 20o Average age of first sexual intercourse: Girls: 17 Boys: 16• Most teenagers to start sexual activity earlier have multiple partners, do not use contraceptives regularly, and have misinformation about sexo Other risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantaged community, substance use, antisocial behavior• Use of contraceptives had increased since 1990’so 80% of teens use contraceptives the first time having sexo Only 62% teens reported using condoms the most recent time having sex• Teenagers get information about sex from peers, media, parents and sex educationo Some schools promote abstinence as the only option • Free contraceptives to adolescents, birth control education, free abortion, teaching how to stop orpostpone sexual activity, attention to underlying factors that put teenagers and families at risk of pregnancy• Adolescent rebellion – a myth?• Pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents, that may involve conflict with family, alienation from society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values• Adolescents raised in homes with a positive family atmosphere tend to come through adolescence with no serious problemso Adolescents are NOT ticking time bombs• Individuation • Adolescents’ struggle for autonomy and personal identityo Carving out boundaries between self and parentso May entail family conflict• Parenting styleso And monitoring• Authoritative parents foster healthy psychological developmento Have rules but are willing to negotiate• Problems arise when parents overstep what adolescents perceive as appropriate parental authority• Teens most likely to disclose info about themselves when parents maintained a warm, responsive family climate in which they were encouraged to speak openly• Adolescents - who are they with when they are happiest?• Happiest with close friends because they can easily disclose thoughts and feelingso Higher self-esteem when they have close friendships• Delinquencyo Early and late onset• Early on-set: starting at age 11; chronic juvenile delinquency in adolescence• Late onset: after puberty; arise temporarily ino prevention response to the changes of adolescence• Prevention:o Authoritative parentingo Economic circumstanceso Early childhood prevention programso Preventing gang recruitmento Scouts, sports, churcho Job skills


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