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FSU AMH 2020 - Study Guide

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AMH2020 US HISTORYFINAL EXAM REVIEW GUIDEThere will be eight on the exam, and you will answer only five. Define the term or person in paragraphform, explaining its significance. (Why is this term/person important in American history?)This study guide includes 23 of the 30 terms and names provided by our professor. In allhonesty, those are the only 23 I’m going to study because we really only need to know 5 out ofthe 8 she’ll provide on the exam. I think 23 out of 30 is a pretty solid amount. Sorry if this isinconvenient for you, but here are the remaining seven terms and names I left out of thisguide:Double V CampaignThe Great SocietyMississippi Freedom Democratic PartyReagan DemocratMilitary industrial complexBill ClintonWhitewaterI hope you found this helpful. Thanks for purchasing, and good luck on your exam!Four FreedomsOn January 6, 1941, President FDR delivered his State of the Union address. This speech later becameknown as the “Four Freedoms Speech” because he spoke about a hopeful future for the world based on the“essential human freedoms”  four fundamental freedoms he believed everyone ought to enjoy:1. Of speech2. Of worship3. From want4. From fearWhen WWII began, this became his statement of Allied goals in the war. He said these were rights ofeveryone in the world, regardless of race or creed. The Allies fought to defend these rights. In 1943, NormalRockwell famously illustrated the Four Freedoms, which became some of the most iconic images of the 20thcentury. These illustrations translated the ideas of the Four Freedoms into instantly recognizable images.Stokeley CarmichaelCarmichael was a TrinidadianAmerican black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement.Growing up in the United States from the age of eleven, he graduated from Howard University and rose toprominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student NonviolentCoordinating Committee (SNCC) and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party.LevittownAfter WWII, most of the economic growth involved homebuilding and spending on consumer goods. This erasaw a baby boom, sparking development of American suburbs. There were enormous demands for housing,home appliances, television sets, and cars. These items were all made in the US  which boosted jobopportunities. By 1960, American suburb residents outnumbered both urban residents and rural people.Nearly all of the home growth was from suburbs  the number of houses between 1945 and 1960 nearlydoubled. The majority of Americans were able to purchase a home for the first time ever. William and AlfredLevitt figured out a way to construct prefabricated homes quickly. Within months, their first suburbandevelopment in PA went from an empty field to the home of more than 40,000 people living in single familyhomes. Houses also provided returning veterans and their families with a place to live  an alternative muchbetter than cramped central city locations and apartments. Later on, a lot of children would condemnLevittowns as “little boxes made of ticky tacky, little boxes all the same” due to the fact that all of the homeswere identical to one another. This sparked people to quickly make their homes their own. Homeimprovement projects became popular with suburban men as a result.National Organization for WomenFrustration over the Civil Rights Act of 1964 led to the founding of NOW in 1966. Betty Freidan and PauliMurray, who we talked about in lectures on civil rights, were the co founders and wrote the group's firstStatement of Purpose. They called for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, enforcement of CR Act,equality in education and employment, help for women in poverty, changes in marriage and divorce law, andabortion rights. Goal was: “To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of Americansociety now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men." They, likethe NAACP, used the court system to bring about change. Brought lawsuits when they saw unequal treatment– and did win equality for women in many areas of the law.GI Bill(Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944)The GI Bill is a law that provided a range of benefits for returning WWII veterans. The GI Bill made middleclass status more accessible than ever before. Postwar years, more than 50% of all college students who wereUS veterans got paid to attend classes by the government. This made more people attend college. By 1950s,2.2 million vets attended college and another 5.6 million attended trade school with government financing.Before the GI Bill, young veterans believed that education was nearly going to be impossible for them toattend. Government financing of education made the workforce more educated as well! Students began toflood colleges, causing schools to expand. Better education meant that there would be a higher earning power,and that translated into consumer spending, influencing the postwar economy positively. Everyone was veryimpressed with the GI Bill because it helped provide people with educations who wouldn’t have had a chanceat a better life otherwise.Betty FreidanAfter suffrage, organized feminism virtually ceased to exist. Women made gains, but there started to be moreof a disconnect in the 1950s between the expectations that society placed upon women and what they wereactually doing. Betty Friedan capitalized on this and created a movement. She was born in 1921 in Peoria, IL,and grew up in a middleclass Midwestern Jewish family. The antiSemitism that she experienced growing upin Peoria made her sensitive to injustice. She worked as a journalist for a variety of leftwing and labor unionnewspapers after attending Smith College and UC Berkeley. She was fired from her job when she becamepregnant with her second child  strictly because she was pregnant  so she began life as a housewife. In 1957,Freidan attended her 15 year college reunion and distributed a survey among her classmates, asking them ifthey were married, had children, what (if any) career they pursued before marriage, and whether they weresatisfied with their lives. She found that the vast majority of them were married and had children. She foundthat they were happy with their marriages and families but wished they could do something with their educationand training. They felt discontent with life as a housewife and the


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