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FSU AMH 2020 - Rationing

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Rationing: • WW2 brought America out of the Great Depression, suddenly people had jobs during the war- everyone has money but you cant spend it or go anywhere (no vacations) • tires first thing to be rationed, Japanese controlled 90% of rubber • all gasoline went to war effort • stickers given based on importance (A- nonessential, B- traveling salesman, C- doctors who make home visits)◦ A sticker- 3 gallons of gas a week◦ speed limits knocked down to 35mph• food is rationed, family given book of ration stamps, each food item given ration value, also had to pay money◦ had to pay cost in money and cost in stamps◦ all foods rationed • shoes were rationed ◦ two new pair a year• each family rationed one pound of coffee every five weeks When war is over people want to buy things they have had to live without during depression/war-consumer culture develops Harry S. Truman:• new President for postwar • wanted to go to West Pointe and serve in army, could not go to West Pointe because of bad vision• army relaxed its regulation during WW1 and he served in France • after war he is elected to Senate in 1934• Truman was given a committee to look into military spending efficiency during WW2 (money spent on contractors) ◦ discovered contractors were cheating the US out of money ◦ saved US $15 million• 1944 chosen as VP for Freddy Roosevelt in case Roosevelt dies, Truman is reliable • Jan 1945 becomes VP• April 1945 Franklin dies, and Truman is president • very stubborn, but managed post war very well • Truman adopted Roosevelt's policy of the GI BillG.I. Bill• 9 million servicemen coming home will cause unemployment to go up • aka Service Man Readjustment Act • needed to be best educated nation• gave returning servicemen to go to college◦ dorm, tuition, books, meals, etc. • Florida State University becomes co-ed • give time for job market to expand • some already had jobs lined up- low interest home loans are then provided by the gov. • housing market soars ◦ improves economy◦ construction industry ▪ creates jobsWomen in the Work Force• number of women working dropped because their jobs are given to the returning soldiers • 8 million had worked in defense factories during the war • consumerism ◦ after WW2 the defense factories converted to make kitchen appliances (housing industry increase supply for these products)◦ women meant to stay at home and use all these new appliances to make sure house runs smoothly ◦ Benjamin Spock- “Common Sense of Baby and Child Care” ▪ Baby Boom during this time ▪ women primary care giver for infants/children ▪ women's success is measured by raising a well adjusted child ▪ best seller ▪ psychologist • suburbs◦ families usually only had one car◦ man took it to work, leaving wife stranded in the suburbs• “Modern Women: the Lost Sex” by Maryina Farnham and Ferdinand Lundberg ◦ two psychologists ◦ if a woman did not have children she would become emotionally disturbed ◦ love and support husband returning from war◦ raise children ◦ if trying to seek a career outside of the home was trying to be masculine- trying to take the role of a man ◦ best seller ◦ two books • feminine jobs ◦ secretary ◦ waitress◦ telephone operator ◦ selling women's clothing in department stores • Women are gradually phased out of the work force -No inflation until 1960's, things were relatively cheap, and Americans had money -20 million refrigerators were purchased -frozen foods were introduced -spending spree-consumer debt was $100 million in 1950 -gets worse when first credit card was introduced in 1950 -Americans begin going on vacations -need a place to stay (before 1950's hotels are called tourist camps- rented small cabin for one night)-hotels start to be built -Holiday Inns -restaurants also begin to be built- fast food is introduced in 1950's in California -hamburger, fries, and milkshake for $.15-current small is original sizes -on the go, no time to sit and eat Suburbia: • lack of housing for returning servicemen, all in city housing is occupied• army barracks sold as housing • trolly cars sold as housing • buying/owning a house became a major goal for Americans ◦ symbol of success• Levitt Brothers (William and Alfred)◦ construction workers during war ◦ after war decided to come up with idea of suburb◦ bought land in Long Island◦ used assembly method to build house (each worker has only one specific job) ◦ each house has 27 steps to build ◦ more profit by owning all background material they needed (lumbermills, nai factories, etc)◦ $7,000 ◦ basic 2 bedroom homes◦ could build 180 homes each week◦ Levittown◦ threw in TV and washing machine ◦ put in supermarkets, schools▪ created jobs ◦ segregated, African Americans could not apply for homes▪ 1970's only 1% of Levittown is African American ◦ 80,000 residents in each Levittown 80th Congress: • different than any congress in 15 years • first time since 1932 Republicans controlled both houses of Congress• Democrats blamed for some problems after war• chance to repeal New Deal◦ Labor Unions ▪ after WW2 went on strike for better wages and working conditions ▪ already making more money than they should ◦ Taft Hartley Act ▪ Robert Taft ▪ banned the closed shop (hiring of Union members only)▪ permitted employers to sue unions for broken contracts or damages inflicted during strikes ▪ forced unions to abide by a 60 day cooling off period before striking ▪ required unions to make public their financial statements ▪ union leaders had to swear they were not communists • Truman vetoed, but was still passed • John F Kennedy and Richard Nixon are sent to debate Taft Hartley Act1947 -Civil Rights: at age of 28 Jackie Robinson is signed by Dodgers-death threats and name callings by fans and other teams-had to sleep in a different hotel than the rest of the team-Rookie of the Year, Batting Title, MVP -Truman desegregated the army in 1947 1948:-Democratic National Convention: -Hubert Humphrey: mayor of Minneapolis, fought for Civil Rights-Southern Democrats walked out-formed own party- States Rights Party (dixie-crats) -up to each state to decide how to handle Civil Rights-split in Democratic party -Democratic party supports Civil Right -Thomas Dewey Republican candidate for election of 1948 vs. Truman -Truman campaigned across the nation and


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