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FSU AMH 2020 - The Rise of the Republican Party

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1854 – 1865Third Party System (1854-1890s)Important issues during this period included:Growth of National GovernmentModernization and growth of industryAbolition of slavery and then race relationsTrade protectionismPolitical (electoral) RealignmentA significant lasting change in the arrangement of political forces, a sharp change in issues, or a shift in the regional and demographic bases of power of the two partiesPolitical realignments generally result in a new political power structure that lasts for decadesKansas Nebraska Act (1854)Introduced by democratic leadershipCreated territories of Kansas and NebraskaRepealed Compromise of 1820 (which had made it illegal to have slaves in those territories)Allowed citizens of new territories to decide if they wanted slavery or notResult: Contributed to realignment and rise of the republican party with an anti-slavery movementCauses Whig Party to collapseThe Whig Party – coalition of anti-slavery and pro-slavery peopleKansas Nebraska act caused many pro-slavery Whigs move to democratic partyEven caused anti-slavery people to leaveRepublican Party going into 1860sbecomes northern based, exclusively anti-slavery partyPut forward a vision of modernization the US (like the Whigs)Emphasize free labor – individuals can bargain for wages, move from business to businessEmphasize free homesteads and better race relationsTrade and Protectionism – protect domestic industry against foreign competition by putting up barriers to foreign trade, such as taxes and tariffs on foreign importsTariff – tax on either imported or exported goods, often used to generate revenue and/or protect domestic industriesThe north has many of the factories so this will benefit them: self-interest, it motivates themDemocratic Party becomes southern based, pro-slaveryProponents of Free Trade – competing with Europe for cotton, Europe doesn’t want to buy cotton from the South because of tariffs, South losesTariff revenue funded about 90% of the federal budget between 1850 and 1860Without tariffs, the government wouldn’t have functioned at this timeElection of 1860Abraham Lincoln elected1861 – Civil War beganDemocrats started to leave US governmentRepublicans were trying to reshape American Government over in DCPassing of moral tariff in 1861 – replaced the low tariffs that had been passed by democrats with higher tariffs, benefits domestic producers and hurts foreign buyersResulted in more powerful federal governmentProposed idea of federal income tax, passed in 1861 – 3% flat tax on everyoneHelps federal government and republicans earn more money for the war to buy horses, pay soldiers, buy weaponsQuestionable if the north could have won the civil war without everything republicans didExpired shortly after the war until 1913Proposed that the US government take control of monetary systemCame up with national paper currency1861 – passed legislation that allowed government to print off paper currencyeverything was backed by gold – you could exchange the paper for gold if you wantedthey printed way too many “demand notes” (paper currency) than they had gold forlegal tender notes – doesn’t say “on demand” on it so it isn’t backed up by anything but the word of the federal government, added the word “legal tender”. You had to accept them if you were a merchantfirst form of fiat currencyFiat Money – money declared by a government to be legal tender, fiat money does not have a value in its own rightDemand notes and Legal Tender Notes became known as “green backs”Value plummeted because there was so many, prices of goods rose – inflationCounterfeiting became a problem, by the end of the civil war, about a third of the money circulating was counterfeitReconstructionMany advocates of reconstruction wanted implement trade in the South, destroy the Old South PlantationOutcome not as successful as they hopedPresidential Reconstruction – Lincoln and JohnsonLincoln did not want the North and South to hate each other after the warEmancipation Proclamation – freed slaves in Southern states which were occupied by Northern military forcesDid not outlaw slaveryReconstruction Amendments – 13th, 14th, 15th. Settled question of slavery, enlarged powers of federal government, promoted political equality13th amendment – outlawed slavery10th amendment – the powers not delegated to the united states by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the peopleLincoln’s 10% planFull pardon to rebels willing to renounce secession and accept emancipation of slavesPardon would restore all property, except slaves, and full political rightsWhen 10% of a state’s voting population took an oath of allegiance to the U.S., state would be able to organize a new governmentRadical Republicans – wanted southern states to resemble a much more egalitarian society like that of the north, did not believe that Lincoln’s plan would produce this outcomeThaddeus Stevens – a leading Radical Republican, devoted his life to ending slavery and punishing the south, active on underground railroad, supported of a larger, more active federal government, thought government should control currencyBenjamin Butler – radical from Mass, in charge of Occupy New Orleans, was hated by everyone there, created an order that women of the south would be treated like prostitutesApril 14, 1865 – Lincoln shot by BoothAndrew Johnson becomes presidentTennessee democratWanted to destroy Planter classDoesn’t care anything about freeing the slaves, just wants to punish his Elite enemies in the SouthFreedman’s Bureau – created by Lincoln, goal was to aid in assisting ex-slaves in their transition to freedomRadical republicans thought it was too small, underfundedJohnson wanted to get rid of it – vetoed itCongress overturned his vetoCivil Rights act of 1866 – all person’s born in the U.S. were citizens of the U.S. (14th amendment)Johnson doesn’t like this either … lost all credibility he once had with congressElection of 1866 – republicans have 3:1 majority in congressLeads Radical reconstruction – radical republicans are going to take over and reconstruct the south1867 – republicans in congress led by Thaddeus Stevens overturn Johnsonmilitary reconstruction – use military in the South to oversee the reconstruction process1868 – 1877The Other Side of ReconstructionMilitary Reconstruction


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