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FSU AMH 2020 - The Third Party System and the Rise of the Republican Party

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History of the United States since 1865Lecture OutlinesThe Third Party System and the Rise of the Republican Party1. The Third Party System - growth of national government, modernization and growth of industry, abolition of slavery and race relations, trade protectionism. i. Realignment – a significant lasting change in the arrangement of political forces, a sharp change in issues, or a shift in the regional and demographic bases of power of the two parties. a. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) – promoted democrats. It repealed Compromise of 1820, which allowed slaves. Citizens were allowed to decide if they could have slaves or not. 1. Rise of the Republican Party – republican party was founded by anti-slavery Whig party and Democratic members.i. Against the Expansion of Slavery ii. For Protectionism – increase tariffs on trade to promote domestic industry in the United Statesa. Tariffs – tax on imported/exported goods that promotes trade protectionism because foreign goods are more expensive. 1. Republicans in Power – Abraham Lincoln took office in 1860, he was a part of the Republican party.i. The Morrill Tariff of 1861- raised tariff rates drastically to benefit the Northern states in this time. ii. The Revenue Act of 1861iii. Paper Currencya. Demand Notes – paper money that was backed by gold, they issued too many and the notes were devalued. b. Legal Tender Notes - had value because government said they did, not backed by gold, fiat money. 4. Reconstruction i. Presidential Reconstruction a. Lincoln’s Reconstruction - he didn’t want to punish the south, wanted to free the slaves and reunite the north and south. b. Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction – didn’t want to punish slaves, wanted to punish their masters. Gave amnesty to confederate soldiers Terms:Inflation – too much money chasing too few goods14th Amendment – all persons born within the U.S. are citizens. All citizens are entitled to equal treatment under thelaw.Lame Duck – anything said politically by a politician is ignoredPresidential Veto – when the president refuses to pass a law, amendment, etc. that congress has proposedGreenbacks – another name for demand notesThe Secret Service – created after the Civil War because of mass amounts of counterfeit after the paper currency was createdThe Whig Party – a political party before the Civil War that fragmented and became the Republican partyThe Democratic Party - stayed constant. They took a backseat to the republicans during a 70 year periodFiat Money – money that has value because the government says it doesThe Freedmen’s Bureau – helped out free slaves with education, food, land, shelter, etc.The 10% Plan – full pardon to rebels who accept emancipation of slaves, pardon would restore all property, except slaves, and full political rights, 10% of state’s voting population took an oath of allegiance to the U.S., state would be able to organize a new government13th Amendment – abolished slavery within all territories of the U.S. Settled question of slavery and reconfigured federal government and the statesEmancipation Proclamation – outlawed slavery everywhere except border-statesBenjamin Butler – general in charge of Louisiana, made southerners mad, radicalThaddeus Stevens – leading radical republican, worked hard to defeat slaveryRadical Republicans – critical to reconstruction, didn’t want to pardon the confederacy, annoyed with the 10% planReconstruction Amendments – 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments15th amendment was the right for any race to vote. Violence, Corruption and Economic Turmoil1. Radical Reconstruction - radical republican approach to reconstruction. Punish the south and overturn Johnson’s states’ rights approach I. The Military Reconstruction Acts - districts in the south that oversaw the south by northern militia, new state constitutions in the south using radical guidelines, and states had to ratify the 14th amendment. Only then could they be readmitted to the country II. The Tenure of Office Act – required approval of the senate to dismiss government officials that were appointed with the approval of the senate III. The 15th Amendment – citizen’s right to vote may not be deprived based on “race, color, or previous servitude”. Changed dynamics in the south a. African Americans in Office – Hiram Rhodes Revels, Blanche Bruce, P.B.S. Pinchback were all in office 2. White Southern Reaction I. The Ku Klux Klan – fear that their lifestyle would seize to exist, created this group to intimidate blacks, carpetbaggers, and scalawags. II. The Myth of the Lost Cause – ex-confederates dedicate memorials, losses on the battlefield were inevitable due to Northern superiority in resources and man power, slavery was a benign institution, and the slaves were loyal and faithful to their benevolent masters, confederate generals such as Robert E. Lee represent the virtues of Southern nobility, and defense of states’ rights, and no the preservation of slavery, was the primary motivation for secession. III. Black Codes – laws passed by southern legislatures in the 2-3 years immediately following the end of the war. These laws limited civil rights and liberties of freed slaves – passed before radical reconstruction. Through black codes, try to still preserve slavery and preserve what the old south used to be in some way. IV. Sharecropping - farmers that owed land owner share of the profit from crops, usually about half. They racked up credit with the plantation owners and there was no hope to break even, most were bound to plantation owner. Pretty much slavery. 3. Redemption – southern democrats and redeemers begin restoring power to the south, troops began residing out of the south I. The Election of 1876 – Rutherford B. Hayes and Tilden, Hayes won who was a republican that supported equal rights II. The Compromise of 1877 – democrats did no approve, federal troops pulled out of the south and reconstruction was over, formal end to reconstruction 4. The Grant Administration I. The Fisk and Gould Scandal – they were trying to tip people off about the gold policy, wanted to make a profit, plunge in stock


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