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FSU AMH 2020 - Exam Study Guide

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Exam Study Guide AMH2020SchubitzProgressivism: The ideology that industrialization and urbanization negatively affect American life. Formed form middle-class idealists, Democrats & Republicans, that sought reform and regulation in order to ensure social justice. Also on the platform were ambitions to curb the powers of local politiciansin order to establish honest and efficient government in addition to a ban on child labor, laws promotingsafety in the workplace, the prohibition, women’s suffrage, and anti-trust acts.Muckrakers: A term negatively denoted by President Theodore Roosevelt to describe journalists that exposed the filth of society and America to the public. - Important Muckrakers o Ida Tarbell: Daughter of a contractor that worked in the oil industry, wrote a book that exposed the illegal activity & dangers of the oil industryo Upton Sinclair: wrote “The Jungle”, called attention to the meatpacking industry and more, slightly exaggerated to outrage people.- Impact of Muckrakers: o Pure Food & Drug Act provides federal inspection of food and other goodso Settlement Houses Built in poor areas for middle/upper class volunteers to live in while reaching out to their poor neighbors Jane Adams was a huge settlement house leader establishing her own “Hull House” for newly arrived European ImmigrantsMuller vs. Oregon: Pivoted a small business owner against the state of Oregon to enforce the 10 hour work day for women. - Significance of the Case : introduced the Brandeis Brief to the court system A written legal document used by lawyers to present their case and argument to the court, before this particular brief most were pure legal theory. This brief presented statistical data and sociological evidence. - Significant People : o Kurt Muller the small business owner that was brought to the Supreme Courto Florence Kelley Labor reformer that signed to the defense for the state of Oregonteamed up with Louis Brandeis.o Louis Brandeis important figure in the Progressive Era and the prosecuting attorney in the caseElection of 1912: The election between William Taft (Republican), Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive), Woodrow Wilson (Democratic), and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist). Woodrow Wilson won by alandslide because the Republican vote was split between Taft and Roosevelt. Note: Debs acquired the highest proportion of votes for the Socialist Party ever, 900,000 votes. - Significance : Shift in political power, for the first time since the Civil War and Grover Cleveland the Democratic Party held the White House and majorities of both houses of Congress. Also Wilson’s election brought southerners back into national and international affairs.- The Candidates: o Woodrow Wilson: represented a southern progressivism, limited government, competition, small business, and he advocated from an individualistic perspective.o Eugene Debs: ran on the Socialist party ticket in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920 (from Prison). Involved in the labor movemento William H. Taft: fairly moderate, President from 1909-1913 after Roosevelt, supported by moderates, conservatives, and supporters of big businesso Theodore Roosevelt: became President in 1901 due to the assassination of President McKinley, youngest President, famous for his imperialist ideology- Political Platforms: o Roosevelt’s New Nationalism Government protection of human welfare and property rights Believed that only a powerful federal government could guarantee social justice Believed Trusts were inevitable and government should regulate them instead of breaking them up Right Wingedo Wilson’s New Freedom Called for smaller Federal government, smaller business, & more competition Believed in anti-trust legislation and standing out of the way to let competition reign and the economy flourish Middleo *Taft was Left WingedWilson’s Presidency Prior to WWI:- Lowered tariffs considerably, The Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 reduced the overall average duty from 37% to 29%. - Passed the 16th Amendment: amended the Constitution to allow an income tax- Federal Reserve Act: passed in 1913, reconstruction of the banking system, established twelve regional Federal Reserve banks, each owned by member banks in its district. The arrangement expanded money supply and bank credit in times of high business activity or when borrowing increased. Provided the nation with a flexible currency system while decentralizing the money supply.- Anti-Trust Laws: created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), a five member commission that replaced Roosevelt’s Bureau of Corporations. Assumed the power to define “unfair trade practices” and issue “cease-and-desist” orders when evidence of unfair competition was found.WWI: What caused it?- The single even that sparked the beginning of the war was the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist.- Austria-Hungary sought to punish Serbia, Russia’s military aided Serbia and triggered a conflict between the two major European Alliance Systems: o The Triple Alliance (also known as the Allied Powers and the Triple Entente):  France Great Britain Russiao The Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Italy- When Russia refused to stop its army’s mobilization in Serbia, Germany aiding Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia and its ally France on August 1st, 1914.- Great Britain, Japan, and Turkey entered only weeks after.- This particular war was different than any previous conflict using weapons of mass destruction- The Battle of Verdun: in France, lasted from Feb-Dec 1962, 32 million artillery shells fired- Trench warfare was introduced in WWI- The Battle of Somme: 20,000 British soldiers were killed, 40,000 wounded in less than 24 hoursU.S. Neutrality in WWI:- Wilson fought for years for America to remain neutral- Slight signs of support towards the Allied Powers: the $2 billion loan for aid to Britain and France in comparison to Germany’s $27 million- The Allies’ demand for food generated and economic boom in the states- The 1st threat to American neutrality was Germany’s sinking of the passenger liner the Lusitania in 1915, killing 128 Americans among the 1,198 lost.o American opinion was outragedo Secretary of State William Bryan demanded that Germany abandon unrestricted submarine warfare, after repeated American demands in stronger terms he resignedin protest refusing to risk war over the


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