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FSU AMH 2020 - COMPLETE FINAL EXAM REVIEW

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AMH 2020 – HIS OF US SINCE 1865 – COMPLETE FINAL EXAM REVIEW -Scott Shubitz* The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)- Late 1947 – began to subpoena people in Hollywood to determine the role of Communism in Hollywood- MOST PEOPLE PROUDLY PARTICIPATED (Walt Disney, Reagan)- Provided names of Communists and people who had Communist network (“MIGHT” be/know a Communist)- Some people didn’t testify freely and were forced to talk.- “Are you/have you ever been a member of the Communist party of the US?”- Committee soon identified TEN suspected Communists, “Hollywood Ten” / writers & directors- All ten had some kind of association with the Communist party/all refused to cooperate ( PLEAD THE FIRST * free speech * DIDN’T WORK )- First Amendment doesn’t protect from repercussions of not cooperating within a court of law.- ALL MEN * Charged with contempt of Congress; lost jobs; went to prison for not cooperating- Illustrated that 1st a m e n d m e n t w o u l d n o t p r o t e c t f r o m l a w ; people began to plead the FIFTH. “No one should be compelled to be a witness against themselves”- 5th protected many people from charge of contempt from Congress; HOWEVER, you were blacklisted (immediately assumed to be a Communist); grounds for job dismissal.……. As a result………FIRST OFFICIAL BLACKLIST OF HOLLYWOODBlacklist : unofficial list of suspected Communists/associators, lasted from 1947 until the 1960s1) Came about when people decided they weren’t going to employ suspected communists2) NOT JUST ONE LIST; NOT ALWAYS WRITTEN; EVERY ORG HAS ITS OWN LIST3) If you support World Peace, you MUST support Soviet Union4) Some people were blacklisted because their names came up in discussion.5) Not limited to actors, it was anyone in any industry or businessRed Channels: 1950. Pamphlet that named over 150 involved in a Communist conspiracy to turn the US citizens against the US gov’t. Incl: Langston Hughes; Peter Seeger (actually was a Communist for a while)Peter Seeger lost his career overnight when his name appeared on a Blacklist; testified to being a Communist up until the 1940s, yet he wouldn’t tell on anyone else so he was sentenced to a year in prison (see image) ------------------------------------------------------------------- P. SeegerHUAC then moved on to investigating Communist infiltration of the US government…Whitaker Chambers: works @ TIME magz. Admitted to being a Communist in the 1930s. Participated in a spy ring to gather info for the Soviets….but he claims to have found God, which led him to become an anti-Communist. Provided a list of Communists (Alger-Hiss). Supported claim by leading FBI onto his farm and went to a hollowed pumpkin full of documents (written by Hiss) hidden from Communist agents, for fear that they would deny his claims. Hiss: close advisor to Pres. Truman. Denied knowing Chambers. Convicted of perjury and sentenced to 5 yrs in prison. Citizens viewed the President Truman as “soft on Congress”; viewed the Communist conspiracy as a way of Republicans to try to prove that they are more anti-Communist than the party within the White HouseJoseph McCarthy- influential anti-Communist crusader; republican senator from Wisconsin. He was NOT in HUWAC. “Secretary of state is protecting 205 Communists”; died of alcoholism; jackassMcCarthyism- paranoid search for a hidden enemy (enemy among us)1) Voice of America- McCarthy’s first target in investigating Communism; government radio station; most transmissions were placed along borders totransmit amid Communist countries (west & east Germany); propaganda tool; McCarty said it wasn’t doing its job, failed investigation though.2) State Department- McCarty said state’s libraries held books that promoted Communism and needed to be searched. MANY BOOKS WERE BANNED. (Thoreau’s “Civil Disobedience”)3) Most Famous Case* US ARMY- McCarthy said he’d heard about a dangerous spy ring among Army officials; said a major was suspected of being a CommunistArmy-McCarthy Hearings: confrontation between him & Army; 36 days, fully televised; court case; McCarthy disrespected high ranking officials and aimed charges which could not be proven; OUTCOME: INCONCLUSIVE. US citizens realized McCarthy was a rude man who had no regard for people, he lost much popularity.Post- McCarthyism Films & Books: played off fears of fear of Communism & what it’d be like to be under Soviets; played on the manhood of the American male; RED MENACE played upon fears of Communist subversion in the US.4/15/2013Reasons for Postwar Prosperity1) Americans had been unable to spend on consumer goods during the war2) Incomes were rising (hadn’t been this high since 1920’s)3) Americans who had served during the war had saved a lot of money4) America was becoming an exporting powerhouse due to other countries’ industries being destroyedAmerican Dream transforms 1) American family 2) Education3) Good job4) Home ownership*Now more attainable than everFAMILYBaby Boom: massive increase in the amount of children in an American family post WW2, due to... 1) Men coming come2) Marriage rates increased3) People can now afford children4) People began to get married immediately after high school, and had children soon after marriage*Baby Boomers: people born during the baby boom….duh.EDUCATION- Colleges became much more important- Even if you don’t go to the college, you may root for their team...inhabit central role in American lives- Universities expanded more than ever before- Post-war enrollment caused the creation of more buildings. Added dorms..LIKE BELLAMY ON CAMPUS- Hayday of community colleges- Brought forth the idea of spending money to promote growth of technology and science- BETTER tanks, rockets, bombsCold War Research University: beneficiaries of federal grants aimed at benefitting the US military; basically, schools who researched ways to produce bigger and/or better artillery would receive federal grants to fund the researchJOBSUS became the first Post Industrial Economy: economy is primarily based on services, instead of manufacturing- Blue Collar: workers under the system of mass production; mechanic, coal miner, factory worker- White Collar: Service jobs such as medical, law, sciences- People were now working in service sectors instead of in the field or factoryHOME OWNERSHIP- Everything spurred the demand of a home- Spawned the idea of “The


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