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These are all of the key terms for the first exam. If any are missing they were not discussed in class lecture. Rumor has it that the majority of the test questions come from key terms and notes. Good luck!Outline 1: The Third Party System and the Rise of the Republican Party1. The Whig Party: credited with transpiring platform to new Republican Party. Their major issue involved the control over the expansion of slavery. Others included: industry (railroads), modernization, homesteading—go out and settle west, and better race relations. There was however a difference in the platforms of northern Whigs and southern Whigs.2. Inflation: more bills were admitted to circulation which resulted in a decrease in value. 3. 14th Amendment: reaffirms the state and federal citizenship of all persons—regardless of race—born or naturalized in the United States, and it forbids any state to “abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or to deny any person the equal protection of the laws. A “Reconstruction Amendment” which settled the question of slavery. Enlarged powers of the Federal Government and promoted political equality. 4. Lame Duck: an elected official or group continuing to hold political office during the period between the election and the inauguration of a successor—an office holder with no power.5. Presidential Veto: when the President overturns a piece of legislation that was previously passed or will soon be passed in Congress.6. Greenbacks: paper money that is backed by gold. Called greenbacks for their green color. They were very susceptible to counterfeit.7. The Secret Service: developed following the emergence of the “greenbacks” and counterfeiting of paper money. Has two main purposesa. Protect the Presidentb. Counterfeit Money8. Free Trade: Democrats are proponents of Free Trade. Europe will buy cotton and Southerners will buy home goods from Europe (e.g. furniture, luxuries). The South wants Europe to compete with the North (who does not support tariffs on European goods. That competition would mean chapter prices for the South. 9. Reconstruction Amendments: 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. These amendments settled the question of slavery, enlarged powers of the Federal Government, and promoted political equality. The 13th Amendment was the first Reconstruction Amendment. This promoted political equality, outlawed slavery everywhere. It ensured no more state’s rights and put the Federal Government in the position of monitoring Civil Rights in the states (unsuccessful). 10. 10th Amendment: state’s rights 111. Radical Republicans: did not think the 10% Plan established by Lincoln (pardoned to rebels willing to renounce secession and accept emancipation of slaves) was fair. The Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South—blamed the planter class. They wanted to change the social society of the South. They wanted the South to resemble the North—small farms and big factories. 12. Thaddeus Stevens: a leading Radical Republican who was active on the Underground Railroad. He was anti-slavery and wanted it to end. He was a supporter of the National Currency and Federal Government taking a larger role in having a National Bank. 13. Benjamin Butler: a representative from Massachusetts. He was in charge of “Occupy New Orleans” and was hated by most of the rebels who lived there. He moved into Congress to become an active Radical Republican. Both Butler and Stevens were annoyed with President Lincoln. 14. Emancipation Proclamation: outlawed slavery in states still in rebellion. THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION DID NOT FREE ALL SLAVES!15. 13th Amendment: the 13th Amendment was the 1st Reconstruction Amendment. It promoted political equality, outlawed slavery everywhere. It ensured no more state’s rights and put the Federal Government in the position of monitoring Civil Rights in the states but was unsuccessful.16. The 10% Plan: this plan was implemented by Lincoln for an amicable reconciliation. It gave full pardon to rebels willing to renounce their secession and accept the emancipation of slaves. The pardon would restore all property except slaves and full political rights. When 10% of a states voting population took an oath of allowance to U.S., that state would be able to organize a new government. 10% PLAN ENGRAGES “RADICAL REPUBLICANS IN THE NORTH—THEY DIDN’T THINK IT WAS FAIR. 17. The Freedman’s Bureau: this provided “provisions, clothing, and fuel” to relieve “destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children.” It was the first federal experiment in social welfare. Intended to last for a year and aid in assisting free black slaves into social life (e.g. education, health, etc.). The task was too big for the bureau. Legislation was passed to extend its life (one of the last straws for Republicans)—Johnson vetoes. 18. Fiat Money: money (currency) declared by the government to be legal tender. Fiat money does not have a value in its own right (backed up by word of the federal government—accepted by the government).19. The Democratic Party: proponents of Free Trade. “Conservative” parties (named by the Democrats) emerged to mobilize the white vote. Their goal was to outnumber the white and black Republicans. Following all of this, the Republicans began to lose control gradually in the South. 2Outline 2: Violence, Corruption, and Economic Turmoil1. The Civil Rights Act of 1866: divides Johnson and the Radical Republicans. Stated that all people born in the United States, regardless of race are citizens of the United States. Johnson vetoes and tries to turn the states to reject this amendment. Johnson loses credibility with Congress. 2. Impeachment: possibly removal from office of Johnson. Congress wants to set up Johnson so he falls into his own trap. 3. Ku Klux Klan Act: 1871—authorized the military to use whatever force was needed to stop the violence. They would put them on trial and search them, etc. It worked until the end of the 1st Ku Klux Klan. By the mid-1870s the first Ku Klux Klan was gone. There was still some violence from it but not as much as before. a. Remember: - The Ku Klux Klan was based in the South- Extremely violent and intimidating- 2nd & 3rd clans are different4. Hiram Rhodes Revels: a black Congressman from Mississippi—among them was the ablest Congressmen of all time. 5.


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