CU-Boulder IPHY 2420 - Obesity and Surgery (4 pages)

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Obesity and Surgery

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Obesity and Surgery


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Colorado at Boulder
Iphy 2420 - Nutrition for Health and Performance
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IPHY 2420 1st Edition Lecture 34 Outline of Last Lecture December 3 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HUNGER IN AMERICA Food Insecurity Pattern of Malnutrition US Programs to Address Food Security Private Food Sources 3 Step Burden What does 10 00 Buy Food Desert Effects of Hunger 10 Solutions Outline of Current Lecture December 5 2014 1 2 3 4 5 6 Obesity and Surgery Obesity Exacerbating Conditions Other Issues With Obesity Gut Microbiota What can you do to lose Weight What if you can t loose Weight Current Lecture 1 Obesity and Surgery Many different reasons for obesity Epidemiology How we study diseases who is at risk o Higher rates for women then men o All racial and ethnic groups are vulnerable o Rapid rise exceeds genetics external and environmental causes o Childhood obesity rates are concerning Modifiable Risk Factors Dietary o Increased calories from beverages soda free refills empty calories and sugar o Shift to more saturated and processed fats eating out o Decreased intake of fiber fiber is bulking agent to fill you up faster o Portion size eating huge amounts so you eat everything on your plate These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute o Simple Sugars easy translation into fat Modifiable Risk Factors Physiological o Stress body creates fat o Forfeiting lactation lose protection against obesity for mother and infant breastfed children seem to have a lower body weight FOR life then formula fed babies o Stressors in the fetal environment thrifty gene gestational diabetes epigenetics Modifiable Risk Factors Lifestyle o Exposure to chemicals that act as endocrine disruptors BPA heated bottle releases BPA into milk The plastic BPA acts as estrogen and increases how much fat our bodies holds onto o Indoor living altered circadian rhythm when you feel alert and when you feel tired Staying inside and not getting physical activity causes body to hold onto fat o Amount of processed food eaten lots of sugar and salt 2 Obesity Exacerbating Conditions Things that make obesity worse if you are already obese o Amount of time sitting per day how much you sit correlates with increased chance of cardiovascular disease o Asthma interferes with aerobic activity Chronic and cold weather induced some medications have steroids in them that may cause weight gain o Depression Emotional Eating endorphins fats sugars antidepressants may cause weight gain When people are upset they cope with food o Eating disorders even anorexia most disorders result in weight gain Body thinks it is starving so short term thrifty gene o Sleep disturbance sleep apnea contributes to insulin resistance cycle between obesity and sleep apnea and diabetes type 2 o Restless leg syndrome Not being able to sleep when you don t complete an entire REM cycle many get up and eat something o Type 2 Diabetes eating to regulate insulin cravings have to eat when not hungry o Peripheral Edema All around the ankles you become swollen This results in a lack of exercise o Muscle Atrophy The more muscle you lose you don t need as much energy and lose ability to burn more calories wheelchairs elderly 3 Other Issues With Obesity Sex hormone imbalance o One third of Americans have trouble conceiving o Fertility medications cause weight gain Obesigenic the more you are obese the harder it is to conceive o Pregnancy Menstruation Before After PMS women eat more and this leads to obesity most women do not lose baby weight o Hormone imbalances fat produces estrogen Subclinical Hypothyroidism o When your thyroids are not working fast enough you can t lose weight as easily o 1 in 10 Americans o Low in Iodine Diet foods are low in salt not getting enough salt Time of year birthed o Born in cold months more chance to be obese o Born in warm months less chance 4 Gut Microbiota Are Americans overweight because they take antibiotics Family of gut bacteria that help people stay thin if you have a high number of that bacteria it is 100 based on genetics HPylori ulcers but also regulates ghrelin that is a hormone that increases appetite Without HPylori we don t get a signal to stop eating Industrial farming Cows Animals on farms are full of antibiotics and are transferred to us through consumption avoid with organic or grass fed beef 2 3 of gut bacteria due to antibiotics then rest of world American Gut project Gut Biota plants alcohol exercise sleep o Gut mouth skin 99 o Humanfoodproject com americangut The gut biota will reflect your lifestyle 5 What can you do to lose Weight More fiber and water bulking effect Lean proteins no need for saturated fat Less saturated fat clogs arteries REDUCING CALORIES Superfoods INCREASE ACTIVITES Burning calories 6 What if you can t loose Weight 1 Gastric Banding Binds stretch receptors so you feel more full more often Trocarsinserts so you don t get cut open surgical tube Does not alter digestive function normal route of digestion Band tightened with saline creating small stomach pouch Only kind that is removable least success rate People lose the weight remove band and have bad eating habits and gain weight back Cheapest and easiest 2 Gastric Sleeve Permanent solution that reduces side of the stomach holds less then regular stomach Only holds 1 10th of original stomach food Makes you full after one banana 3 Gastric Bypass Most extreme of all surgeries removes most of stomach and connects it directly to the small intestine the rest of the stomach is left for whole life Chemical interactions with bile happen in the intestines not the stomach Highest success rate

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