CU-Boulder IPHY 2420 - Epigenetics (4 pages)

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Epigenetics



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Epigenetics

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Lecture number:
32
Pages:
4
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Colorado at Boulder
Course:
Iphy 2420 - Nutrition for Health and Performance
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

IPHY 2420 1st Edition Lecture 32 Outline of Last Lecture Eating Healthy Over The Holidays Current Lecture Easy day Testable Clicker Questions Outline of Current Lecture December 1 2014 1 Epigenetics 2 Bioactive Food Components 3 Future Generations 4 The Dutch Hunger Winter 5 Relationships with other Starvation events Current Lecture 1 Epigenetics Mother 1st Generation smoking effects all the way down Fetus 2nd Generation smoking effects all the way down Reproductive Cells 3rd generation Your food choices influence what genes are turned on and the way you age and what diseases you are prone too Epigenome Proteins and other molecules that regulate expression of genes o Turning genes on and off o Inherited or altered These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Regulation mechanisms what turns them on and off o Histones o Methyl Groups 2 Bioactive Food Components a Nutrient or Phytochemical is generated during metabolism and decides what genes are activated or silenced food directs on and off switch b Protein Synthesis increased or decreases c Changes cell and tissue functioning d Disease prevention or progression e EVEN WHEN YOU ARE 20 food influences the future 3 Future Generations Embryonic development What you eat if you are under stress like starvation then you are impacting the next 2 generations if your grandmother went through a starvation event you may be more likely to have a higher body mass Modification of epigenome Health Impacts Bioactive constitutes in whole foods EXAMPLE The Dutch Hunger Winter o Germans cut off food supplies for the Dutch to starve them out so they would surrender o Calories reduced to 500 1000 calories per person as opposed to 2000 calories o Altered genetics of babies 311 women were pregnant o There kids were prone to obesity and heart disease then siblings before or after famine ALL 311 babies Thrifty Gene Native Americans o IGF2 Gene This is the altered gene from starvation event 4 The Dutch Hunger Winter The environment has an impact on our genes switching on and off Epigenetics In addition to genetics Identical twins identical genes also different eating habits pasta and meat vs fruit and vegetables Quality and quantity of food can affect the methyl cells docking to DNA and blocking genes and thus turning them off Epigenetics can be changed with the right drugs Synthetic materials we touch drinking alcohol smoking and exposure to UV rays all can switch genes on and off October 1944 6 Month blockade from food sources o Long term affects of malnutrition o Pregnancy during starvation Tried to have the baby early when she had the baby it was painful she went blind and couldn t control her tongue the baby was long and thin and she gave him away because she couldn t feed him o Records from before during and after starvation ability to compare genes of babies born before after and during famine o Unable to breast feed the baby caused many health complaints Kidney stones breast cancer high blood pressure high cholesterol type 2 diabetes younger brother and older sister have no health problems o Developmental Programming The body remembers malnutrition and changes the way our bodies process food for the rest of our life More fat is in the arteries and storing food is a high priority Also changes to allergies more diseases and other health concerns in general 5 Relationships with other Starvation events Animal Studies Adding soy to the diet of identical mice causes the fur to change color Soy has impact on hair color hormones Indian Diets When transitioning from home to England the vegetables were cleaner then India and didn t have b12 so they got very sick Japanese Green Tea Green tea switches on genes that fight cancer it was uncommon for Japanese to get cancer because they drank so much green tea Mental Illness Schizophrenia Famine in China 15 Million people died people started eating bark and the number of people with schizophrenia was much higher Same in with Denmark food during the summer has more folate so the genes that protect against schizophrenia are turned on during the winter enzyme activity is lower and more babies have schizophenia No part of a human is older than 7 years Cells divide quickly and replace and grow Eating Disorders Bulimia Folic acid and Vitamin B12 are unavailable to the mother and the baby is negatively impacted Epigenetics is faster than evolution being able to change in the time of one generation instead of over hundreds of years Fruit Fly Eggs Temperature Change also changes eye color from red to white the offspring of the heated flies also had red eyes even though they were not exposed to the same high temperatures Plants Fast reaction of positive genes being passed onto seeds and next generation of plants Food given to baby and the product its given to them in The plastic is not safe for the baby to drink from when the bottle is heated it breaks apart into the food will affect the baby for the rest of their life The plastic causes hormonal change bisphemol A BPA changes puberty can program a girls body to go into puberty Acquired characteristics CAN be passed on through epigenetics


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