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UNCW BIO 240 - Axial Skeleton

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BIO 240 Dr. Gilley Lecture 10Outline of Last LectureF. GlandsI. DermisA. Papillary RegionB. Reticular RegionC. HypodermisD. Skin DisordersII. Axial SkeletonA. SkullB. Additional Features Outline of Current Lecture I. Axial Skeleton A. SkullB. Hyoid BoneC. Ear ossiclesD. VertebraeE. Rib cageCurrent LectureII. Axial Skeleton - Made up of 80 bones: skull, hyoid, ossicles, vertebra, and rib cage.A. Skull1. Cranial bones (8)a. Frontal (1) b. Parietal (2)c. Temporal (2)d. Occipital (1)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.e. Sphenoid (1)f. Ethmoid (1)2. Facial bones (14)a. Lacrimal (2)b. Vomer (1)c. Nasal (2)d. Palatine (2)e. Maxilla (2)f. Mandible (1)g. Zygoma (2)h. Inferior nasal concha (2)3. Additional featuresa. Temporal bone – Mastoid process, styloid process, externalauditory meatus. i. Mastoid sinus infection  Can be very serious because they are difficult to treat and has a close proximity to the brain. b. Sphenoid bone – Often called “the keystone of the cranium”. It articulates with every other cranial bone4. Sutures – Interlocking joints where at least 2 cranial bones meet. a. Coronal suture – Where the left and right parietal bones meet the frontal bone. b. Sagittal suture – Where the left and right parietal bones meet superiorly at the cranial midline.c. Lambdoidal suture – Where the left and right parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly. d. Squamosal suture – Where the left and right parietal bonesmeet the temporal bones on the lateral aspect of the skull.B. Hyoid Bone1. The origin for the tongue muscle and the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another bone. C. Ear ossicles 1. Malleus (hammer) – Lateral, superficial, or 1st ear ossicles. 2. Incus (anvil) – Middle, or 2nd ear ossicles. 3. Stapes (stirrup) – Medial, deep, or 3rd ear ossicles.D. Vertebrae1. Cervical vertebrae, 7, C1-C7, C1 is also known as the atlas, and C2 is also known at the axis. a. Diagnostic features of cervical vertebrae: Transverse foramen are present (this is a feature specific to cervical vertebrae). C1, atlas, doesn’t have a true spinous process, and has articular processes to join with the occipital condyles. C2, axis, has a dens (odontoid tooth) thatarticulates with the atlas and allows rotation. All cervical vertebrae have a bifid spinous process. 2. Thoracic vertebrae, 12, T1-T12a. Diagnostic features of thoracic vertebrae: The spinous process is long and slender and points inferiorly, all thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs. 3. Lumbar vertebrae, 5, L1-L5a. Diagnostic features of lumbar vertebrae: Are very bulky because they support a lot of weight, the spinous process is short, blunt, and hatchet shaped. 4. Sacrum, 5 fused vertebrae that look like 1 bonea. Diagnostic features of the sacrum: is 5 fused vertebrae thatmake a triangular shaped bone with 4 sacral foramina and a sacral crest that runs down the middle. 5. Coccyx, 4 fused vertebrae that look like 1 bonea. Diagnostic features of the coccyx: “birds beak”, has no foramina, is 4 fused bones. 6. Clinical Application: Herniated Disc (“ruptured”, “slipped”) – Whenthe outer disc is ruptured and there is a protrusion of the inner disc. This leaves to the nerve being exposed and sending constant pain signals to the brain. A percutaneous laser disc decompressioncan be preformed to stop the pain; but the injury is likely to happen a second time because the disc is left weaker. E. Rib cage1. True ribs – 1-7 – Have costal cartilage directly articulating with the sternum. 2. False ribs – 8-12 – Have costal cartilage that indirectly articulates with the sternum.a. Floating Ribs – 11 and 12 – Have no cartilage at


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