TAMU PSYC 307 - Final Exam Study Guide (8 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This is an outline of sorts covering the key ideas in each lecture for the final exam. This is in no way an exclusive review. This review should be used with the lecture notes and the chapters from the text book. Good luck to everyone on this last test!

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Psyc 307 - Developmntl Psychology
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PSYC 307 1st Edition Study Guide 3 Development of Emotions and Temperament Ch 10 I Emotional Development a Definition of Emotion feeling of affect or arousal and the response that you give i Discrete approach born with basic emotions 1 Facial vocal body physiological ii Functional approach maintain status quo or work toward a goal II First Appearance of Basic Emotions a Happiness smile social smile laugh b Anger general distress anger c Sadness d Fear stranger anxiety temperament separation anxiety III Complex Self Conscious Emotions a Shame embarrassment guilt envy pride requires sense of self IV Emotional Self Regulation a Development from infancy to adolescence b Requires effortful control c Coping strategies i Problem centered coping used when situation is seen as changeable ii Emotion centered coping used if problem centered does not work V Identifying Emotions of Others a Development by age b Sympathy and empathy i Sympathy feeling of concern or sorrow for another s plight ii Empathy feeling same or similar emotions as another person c Understanding causes of emotions i Display rules when and when not to display emotions VI Perspectives a Functionalist approach i Functions of emotions cognition social health VII Development of Temperament a Definition differences in emotional reactivity that emerge early in life i Emotional responsiveness b Infant temperament i Thomas and Chess ii Rothbart c Defining personality temperament emotional behavioral ways of interacting with environment way of thinking about the world experiences intelligence Attachment to Others I Attachment a Definition an emotional bond with a specific person that endures across space and time strong and enduring affectionate ties b Theories i Psychoanalytic Freud Erikson ii Learning Harlow iii Ethological Bowlby Ainsworth c Attachment categories i Secure ii Insecure resistant iii Insecure avoidant iv Disorganized disoriented II Causes of secure and insecure attachment a Caregiving hypothesis Ainsworth i Moms of securely and insecurely attached infants differ in responsiveness b Temperament hypothesis Kagan c Goodness of Fit Model d Cultural variations III Factors affecting attachment security a Opportunity interaction and contact b Quality of caregiving c Infant characteristics d Family circumstances e Parent s internal working models i Father as attachment figures working mothers Self and Social Concept Ch 11 I The Concept of Self a Conceptual system made up of one s thoughts and attitudes about oneself i Can include thoughts b The two self s i The I private self ii The me public self c Theories of development of self concept i Social learning ii Psychoanalytic iii Constructivist iv Nativist II Development of self concept a Self recognition i Rouge experiments b Categorical self c Psychological self how people conceptualize themselves III Theory of Mind a Well organized understanding of how the mind works and how it influences behavior i People have minds and their own understanding of how the world should operate b Testing the smarties task IV Self Esteem a How you evaluate yourself judgments about yourself and your self worth b Development i Related to how other s view you ii Achievement related attributions 1 Mastery oriented 2 Learned helplessness V Identity in Adolescence a Begin to develop sense of personal identity that incorporates numerous aspects of self i Erikson ii Marcia s Categories The Family Ch 14 I Parents and socialization a Direct instructors b Indirect socializers c Providers and controllers of opportunity II Parenting styles a Degree of parental warmth support acceptance b Degree of parental control and demandingness c Baumrind s parenting styles i Authoritative parenting demanding supportive ii Authoritarian parenting demanding unsupportive iii Permissive parenting undemanding supportive iv Disengaged parenting undemanding unsupportive d Factors affecting parenting style i How THEY were raised ii Characteristics of their children iii SES iv Ethnicity III Sibling Relationships a First born b Birth of a sibling c Role of siblings d Sibling relationships IV Divorce and Remarriage a Divorce i Impact on children depends on 1 Age of children 2 Severity of parental conflict 3 Amount of time and quality experience 4 Sex of child b Remarriage stepfamilies i Age is a big factor in how they accept new families Peer Relationships Ch 15 I Play a Types i Nonsocial play ii Parallel play iii Social interaction b Play categories i Functional play ii Make believe play iii Constructive play iv Games with rules II Friendships a Intimate reciprocated positive relationships between people b Functions i Source of emotional support and security ii Support of friends particularly important during transitional periods iii Serve as a buffer against unpleasant experiences c Types of peer groups i Clique small group of individuals that are similar in interests and attitudes ii Crowd groups of smaller cliques share a common interest d Structure of groups i Leader has skills characteristics that the group values III Popularity and rejection a Popular i Everyone likes them viewed mainly positively b Rejected i Viewed mainly negatively others do not want to be around them c Controversial you either love them or hate them d Average e Neglected IV Factors a Keys to popularity social skill b Reasons for rejection difficulty interpreting others behavior Moral Development Ch 12 I Theories of Moral Development a Biological social learning cognitive development b Kohlberg i Preconventional conventional unconventional ii What motivates behavior is externally influenced driven motivated iii Theory of moral judgment 1 Stage theories universal applies equally to all cultures and societies c Carol Gilligan i Gender differences in moral development II Prosocial behavior a Altruism showing behaviors that will benefit someone else b Moral core theory moral sense evolved to sustain collective action and cooperation i Moral goodness empathize with others from the beginning ii Moral understanding and evaluation iii Retribution consequences for people that behave differently c Karen Wynn helper vs hinderer preference i Rests on intention behind action theory of mind d Hamlin social evaluation of older infants i Extends to actions of others extends to second person extends to food choice e Acting in prosocial ways i Age differences more sharing helping willing to sacrifice with age III Antisocial behavior a Aggression harming someone

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