TAMU PSYC 307 - Peer Relationships (3 pages)

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Peer Relationships

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Peer Relationships


This lecture covers peer relationships

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Texas A&M University
Psyc 307 - Developmntl Psychology
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PSYC 307 1st Edition Lecture 21 Overview of Previous Lecture Parents and Socialization o Parenting Styles Factors Affecting Parenting Style Sibling Relationships Changes in families in the US o Factors that have changed o Divorce and remarriage Overview of Current Lecture Peer Relationships o Play o Friendships o Popularity and Rejection o Family and Peer Relationships A Play and Others I Peer Sociability in Play a Nonsocial play unoccupied onlooker behavior solitary play b Parallel play plays near other children with similar toys but does not try to influence them c Social interaction associative play cooperative play rules and cooperation II Cognitive Play Categories a Functional play simple repetitive motor movements 0 2 years b Make believe play acting out every day and imaginative roles 2 6 c Constructive play creating or constructing something 3 6 d Games with rules understanding and following rules in play after 6 III Friendships a Intimate reciprocated positive relationships between people b Developmental changes i 4 7 years playmates who is in close proximity can change rapidly similar in sex similar interests ii 8 10 years trust and assistance dependable trustworthy similar interests sex and age often from same racial and ethnic group iii 11 years intimacy and loyalty ability to reveal confide in expect loyalty in return choose friends who understand where you are coming from friends who will be there to make choices with you even if they don t always agree support c Functions of Friendships i Source of emotional support and security ii Support of friends particularly important during difficult transition periods 1 Transitions through adolescence in family in life goals etc iii Friendships may serve as a buffer against unpleasant experiences IV Peer Groups a Types i Clique small group of individuals that are similar in interests attitudes and what they like to do very small specific chosen 1 More cliques present in early to middle childhood more transient 2 Become solid firm during adolescence ii Crowd groups of smaller cliques share a common interest 1 Males more likely to belong to crowds through adolescence b Structure of Groups i Dominance hierarchy 1 Leader has skills characteristics that the group values social skills important c Determinants of peer groups i Parenting styles types of activities that parents promote for children engaged and democratic parents yield constructive and involved children B Popularity and Rejection I Categories a Popular everyone likes them viewed mainly positively i More socially skilled more positive and upbeat with others cooperative ii Difference between what is perceived as popular mean girls and who are actually pop b Rejected viewed mainly negatively others do not want to be around them i Aggressive aggressive and hostile toward others interpret their world very negatively 1 Poor at perspective taking conduct problems ii Withdrawn passive more submissive in interactions with others target of bullying 1 Socially awkward submissive type of personality c Controversial you either love them or hate them strong personality characteristics i Snobbish arrogant vs personality quirk 1 Interpretation of behavior differs d Average not liked or disliked just average e Neglected invisible others don t recognize they are there in a friend capacity II Other Factors a Keys to Popularity i Parenting style with open communication ii Socially skilled kids b Reasons for rejection i Difficulty interpreting others behavior 1 Intervention strategies c Risk factors associated with peer status i Those who are hostile interpret the world in a very negative way ii Stability of social metric statuses 1 Kids that are rejected really withdrawn or aggressive tends to be more stable d Developmental changes i Predictor of what make you popular typically do not change ii Those who are overtly aggressive tend to be rejected those who are withdrawn with negative personality characteristics become easily rejected III Role of Parents in Children s Peer Relationships a Relations between attachment and competence with peers i Positive secure attachment relationships more likely to have competence with peers b Quality of parent child interaction and peer relationships i Parents who are interacting with kids on a regular basis talking about relationships feelings positive rational parenting moms more likely than dads c Parental beliefs and behaviors d Gatekeeping coaching and modeling by parents i Actively involved parents providing opportunities to interact with other kids e Family stress and children s social competence i Families from low SES have more chronic stressors on a daily basis

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