TAMU PSYC 307 - Moral Development (4 pages)

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Moral Development

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Moral Development


This is the final lecture for the course. It covers moral development.

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Texas A&M University
Psyc 307 - Developmntl Psychology
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PSYC 307 1st Edition Lecture 22 Overview of Current Lecture Moral Development o Theories o Kohlberg o Carol Gilligan o Prosocial Behaviors o Antisocial Behaviors December 2 Moral Development I Theories of Moral Development a Biological i Morality altruism is rooted in human nature b Social Learning i Morality is acceptance and practice of social norms c Cognitive Development Piaget covered on exam information in book i Moral reasoning and motivations of behavior 1 The reasoning behind behavior is critical for determining whether it is or is not moral 2 Change in moral reasoning is basis for moral development II Kohlberg a Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development i Expanded upon Piaget s theory behavior appropriate to each stage 1 Preconventional 2 6 years a Punishment and obedience b Instrumental purpose 2 Conventional 6 12 years a good boy good girl morality of interpersonal cooperation b Social order maintaining 3 Postconventional principled level 12 years a Social contract b Universal ethical principle ii What motivates your behavior is externally influenced driven 1 Preconventional avoid punishment satisfy needs 2 Conventional understand and appreciate function of rules norms a Act according to conventions 3 Postconventional rules can be arbitrary based on society a Universal ethical principles rooted in human nature apply to all societies b Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Judgment i Important points 1 Stage theories must happen in sequence rate can vary 2 Universal culture society does not matter a All individuals follow same progression to higher ethical principles 3 Cognitive development especially perspective taking skills determines progress through the stages a The more you can think abstractly take others perspectives more likely you are to progress through stages ii Critique of Kohlberg s Theory 1 Spent most of career at Harvard testing middle aged white males a Research may not generalize 2 People rarely get to stage 6 dilemma on his measures 3 Sex difference in scoring of dilemmas iii Other Issues 1 Can stage of reasoning predict behavior a Not under Kohlberg s theory 2 Situational factors effect behavior a Different influence depending on stage of reasoning 3 Hypothetical and practical reasoning III Carol Gilligan a Gender sex differences in moral reasoning i Females typically score in stage 3 4 stuck in conventional level ii Males typically get to postconventional level 1 Socialize boys and girls differently b Basis for gender differences i Females focus on personal responsibility and relationships ii Males focus on justice and rules c Evidence i Gender sex differences not reliably observed ii Factors that contribute to performance 1 Gender role identity 2 Occupation a Differences between types of occupations b Greater differences between men and women 3 Education higher educated score higher on Kohlberg s dilemmas a Exposed to more things and are doing more abstract thinking IV Prosocial Behavior a Altruism showing behaviors that benefit someone else b Theories i Moral core biological sociobiological 1 Moral sense evolved to sustain collection action and cooperation 2 Mutual gain but sometimes requires personal sacrifice 3 Requirements a Moral goodness empathize with others from beginning i Evidence early ability to feel 1 Empathy emotional response 2 Sympathy feeling of concern b Moral understanding and evaluation i Evidence preference for prosocial over antisocial individuals c Retribution there are consequences for people that do not behave like this 4 Karen Wynn reaching task helper vs hinderer preference a Rests on intention behind action theory of mind b Attraction to helpful positive character aversion to negative character 5 Social evaluation in older infants a Hamlin b Extends to actions of others sharing c Extends to second person i The enemy of my enemy is my friend d Extends to food choices cat reacting in prosocial antisocial way i Choose food to which cat reacted in prosocial way model behavior ii Watch people you trust and use that information ii Prosocial actions 1 Social learning 2 Cognitive development c Acting in prosocial ways i Age differences 1 Younger children don t necessarily spontaneously share help unless there is motivation to do so 2 More sharing helping willing to sacrifice act in prosocial ways as kids age ii Explanations 1 Older children better able to detect when someone needs help when cooperation is important 2 Competence responsibility a Older children feel more compelled and responsible toward situations 3 Role taking taking other s perspectives 4 Emotional regulation a Younger kids less able to regulate emotions 5 Attention regulation iii Influences on prosocial altruistic behaviors 1 Genetics modest contribution 2 Environmental cultural reinforcement modeling parenting style V Antisocial Behavior aggression a Aggression harming someone that does not want to be harmed culturally defined i Instrumental proactive aggression when there are blocked goals really want something ii Hostile reactive aggression focused on being angry more personal reaction to others iii Forms of aggression 1 Physical verbal relational doing things to hurt people s relationships b Development of aggression i Ages 6 7 more instrumental aggression ii Ages 7 more hostile aggression c Types of aggressive children i Hot headed children respond reflexively and negatively toward others interpretation of others ii Cold blooded children use aggressive behaviors just because the strategies work d Sex differences i Differ on type of aggression 1 Women more relationally aggressive men more physical in aggression e Stability of aggression i High correlation between level of aggression in early childhood and aggression in adolescence 1 Tends to be related to temperament f Origins and influences i Biological factors small role ii Cultural iii Parenting style

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