TAMU PSYC 307 - The Family (4 pages)

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The Family

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The Family


This lecture covers the family.

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Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Psyc 307 - Developmntl Psychology
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PSYC 307 1st Edition Lecture 20 Overview of Previous Lecture Theory of Mind Autism and False Belief Imaginary Companions Self Esteem Identity in Adolescence Issues Overview of Current Lecture Parents and Socialization o Parenting Styles Factors Affecting Parenting Style Sibling Relationships Changes in families in the US o Factors that have changed o Divorce and remarriage November 20 I Parents and Socialization a Parents can influence their children s development through socialization in three ways i As direct instructors who explicitly teach their children skills rules etc 1 Do as I say ii As indirect socializers who transmit skills rules attitudes 1 Do as I do iii As providers and controllers of opportunities through management of children s experiences and social lives b Parenting Styles i Two important dimensions of parenting style 1 The degree of parental warmth support and acceptance responsiveness 2 The degree of parental control and demandingness control ii Diana Baumrind identified four styles of parenting related to these dimensions 1 Parenting styles table a Demanding vs undemanding expect a lot expect little b Supportive vs unsupportive accepting rejecting 2 4 parenting styles mix of factors above a Authoritative Parenting demanding supportive i Relationship is reciprocal responsive high in bidirectional communication warm in interaction explain why rules exist child centered ii Children more socially competent independent and cooperative as young children achievement oriented internalized moral standards during middle childhood and adolescence a part of process high self esteem do better in school get along better b Authoritarian Parenting demanding unsupportive i Relationships is controlling power assertive high in unidirectional communication no explanation of importance of rules parent centered more likely to use corporal punishment don t internalize moral standards no ownership over rules ii Children anxious and insecure low self esteem low motivation not as socially academically competent c Permissive Parenting undemanding supportive i Relationship is indulgent low in control attempts parents set rules but are lackadaisical in enforcing them children set the rules ii Children socially less mature boys less motivated than girls setting their own standards d Disengaged parents undemanding unsupportive i Relationship is rejecting or neglecting uninvolved ii Children less socially competent more aggressive behaviors higher frustration levels c Parental Influence i Parenting style does influence outcome ii Academic performance authoritative parenting produces best results disengaged parenting produces the worst results iii Attachment influences quality of relationships with peers 1 Adolescence 2 Young adults II Factors Affecting Parenting Style a How THEY were raised what you learned from your parents b Characteristics of their children i Parents who have attractive children are more likely to have authoritative parenting style ii Temperament easy going vs difficult c Social economic status parents of low SES are more likely to be authoritarian i High SES have more opportunities to spend time with their kids ii Low SES have higher stress levels about job security money safety in neighborhood iii High SES parents who are highly educated are more likely to be authoritative d Ethnicity i Cultural differences in the ways that families interact III Sibling Relationships a First born children on average i Parents more affectionate and more demanding all energy dedicated to first born at the time higher IQ more likely to attend college and get higher degrees more conforming b Birth of a sibling i Earlier born competing for resources each new baby leads to decrease in amount of attention regression especially if 3 years old or younger responsiveness of parent important for adaptation to new baby c Role of siblings i Older siblings tend to be role models and teachers take care spend more time together than they do with parents in many cases adolescence and adulthood results in equalization of relationship d Sibling relationships i Have positive and negative effects on development and on family functioning ii Important factors 1 Age gap competition when age gap is smaller 2 Parental treatment of children favoritism 3 Gender same sex siblings have a more harmonious long run relationships 4 Relationship of parents children more likely to get along if parents get along Changes in Families in the United States I Factors that have changed a Median age of first marriage have gone up about 27 b Both parents employed i Subculture based on where you live c Average age of first child d Unmarried mothers 40 of births are two single moms e Older parents i Establishment of careers and financial stability ii Advantages more life experience more stable environment more income financial resources higher education more positive in parenting styles older mothers tend to do fewer hours of housework either hire someone or just don t do it 1 Mothers who work have similar number of interactions with their children as mothers who do not work 2 Older fathers are warmer and more comfortable spending time at home and interacting with their kids iii Disadvantages less energy older fathers less physically active with their kids development of health problems earlier in children s life difficulty relating aging parents raising children and taking care of your own parents at the same time I Divorce and remarriage a Divorce i 50 of children grow up in divorced households ii Divorce is always stressful iii Children of divorce are at greater risk for 1 Short long term psychological behavior academic and relationship problems iv Impact on children 1 Age of child younger children feel like it s their fault adapt more easily 2 Severity of parental conflict 3 Contact with non custodial parent typically father important for long run outcome 4 Amount of time and quality of experience 5 Custody arrangement a Boys more hostile if raised by single mother girls more passive aggressive low self esteem b Joint custody tends to work best more likely to get along 6 Sex of child b Remarriage Stepfamilies i Increasing number of stepfamilies ii Effects on children 1 Younger vs older children in adolescence less receptive of a stepparent working through their own problems puberty growing up a More instances of drug abuse and alcoholism iii Other factors 1 Stepmothers vs stepfathers children more resistant to accepting a

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