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TAMU PSYC 307 - Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology Lecture111/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 11PSYC 307 Developmental PsychologyInstructor: Heather BortfeldPSYC 255Tuesday/Thursday [email protected]://www.tamu.edu/classes/psyc/bortfeld/Teaching Assistant: Eswen FavaPSYC 413Tuesday [email protected]/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 12Required Reading0073405515 / 9780073405513Essentials of Life-Span DevelopmentJohn W Santrock (2008)0073514942 / 9780073514949Taking SidesClashing Views in Lifespan DevelopmentAndrew Guest (2007)Both published by McGraw-HillDevelopmental Psychology Lecture121/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 13GradingMidterm Exam 1 30%Midterm Exam 2 30%Write-up on Taking Sides 10%Final Exam30%Total 100%1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 14Learning outcomes for lecture 1 z Understand why we study developmental psychology z Know and be able to discuss the key issues in developmental psychology Reading:z Santrock-Chapters 1 & 2z Guest-Introduction & Part 1, Issue 1Developmental Psychology Lecture131/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 15Why Study Developmental Psychology? Reason #1: Raising Childrenz Knowledge of child development can help parents and teachers meet the challenges of rearing and educating children– For example, researchers have identified effective approaches that parents and other caregivers can successfully use in helping children manage anger and other negative emotions1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 16Why Study Developmental Psychology? Reason #2: Choosing Social Policiesz Knowledge of child development permits informed decisions about social-policy questions that affect children– For example, psychological research on children’s responses to leading interview questions can help courts obtain more accurate testimonies from preschool childrenDevelopmental Psychology Lecture141/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 17Why Study Developmental Psychology? Reason #3: Understanding Human Naturez Child-development research provides important insights into some of the most intriguing questions regarding human nature (such as the existence of innate concepts and the relationship between early and later experiences)– Recent investigations of development among children adopted from inadequate orphanages in Romania supports the principle that the timing of experiences often influences their effects1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 18Historical Foundations: Early Philosophersz Provided enduring insights about critical issues in childrearing, even though their methods were unscientific z Both Plato and Aristotlebelieved that the long-term welfare of society depended on children’s being raised properly, but they differed in their approachesDevelopmental Psychology Lecture151/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 19Historical Foundations: Plato vs. Aristotlez Plato emphasized self-control and discipline –Aristotle was concerned with fitting child rearing to the needs of the individual child z Plato believed that children are born with innate knowledge –Aristotle believed that knowledge comes from experience 1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 110Historical Foundations: Later Philosophersz The English philosopher John Locke, like Aristotle, saw the child as a tabula rasaand advocated first instilling discipline, then gradually increasing the child’s freedom z Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the French philosopher, argued that parents and society should give the child maximum freedom from the beginningDevelopmental Psychology Lecture161/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 111Historical Foundations: Research-Based Approachz Emerged in the nineteenth century, in part as a result of two converging forces – Social reform movements established a legacy of research conducted for the benefit of children and provided some of the earliest descriptions of the adverse effects that harsh environments can have on child development – Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution inspired research in child development in order to gain insights into the nature of the human species 1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 112Historical Foundations: Formal Field of Inquiryz Child development emerged as a formal field of inquiry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuriesz Sigmund Freudand John Watsonformulated influential theories of development during this periodDevelopmental Psychology Lecture171/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 113Historical Foundations: Freud and Watsonz Freud concluded that biological drives, especially sexual ones, exerted a crucial influence on developmentz Watson argued that children’s behavior arises largely from the rewards and punishments that follow particular behaviorsz Although the research methods on which these theories were based were limited, the theories were better grounded in research and inspired more sophisticated thinking than their predecessors 1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 114Historical Landmarksz John Watson (1878-1958): Behaviorismz B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Radical BehaviorismDevelopmental Psychology Lecture181/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 115Historical Landmarksz Albert Bandura (1925-): Social Learning Theory– Reciprocal determinism (vs. Watson’s environmental determinism)– Observational learning (or: “no-trial” learning)1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 116Bandura’s Bobo-Doll StudyDevelopmental Psychology Lecture191/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 117Historical Landmarksz Piaget (1896-1980)– Father of “Cognitive Development”(asked: Where does knowledge come from?)– Genetic epistemology: "…attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based"z Information Processing Theories– Thinking is both limited and flexible (focus is on the structural characteristics that determine limits and the processes that provide ability to flexibly adapt)1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 118Historical Landmarksz Vygotsky (1896-1934) – Sociocultural theory– Zone of Proximal DevelopmentDevelopmental Psychology Lecture1101/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week 119Historical Landmarksz Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-):Ecological Systems Theory-Microsystem (child)-Mesosystem (immediate surroundings)-Exosystem (extended surroundings)-Macrosystem (broader culture)1/15/2008Developmental Psychology-Week


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