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UW-Madison NUTRSCI 132 - Micronutrients

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NUTR SCI 132 Lecture 26Outline of Last Lecture I. Exercisea. Hot weather exerciseb. Fluid SourcesII. Micronutrientsa. Supplementsb. Vitaminsc. MineralsOutline of Current Lecture I. Tissue Synthesisa. Preservationb. Function RepairII. Specific VitaminsIII. AntioxidantsCurrent LectureI. Micronutrientsa. Zinci. In 100 Enzymes (component of proteins)1. Metalloenzymesa. Mineralsi. Cofactorb. Functioni. Energy releaseii. Amino acid metabolismii. Functions:1. Gene Expression2. Cell Division3. Wound Healing4. Growth These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.5. Strength gains6. Immune Responseiii. Excess1. Also impairs immune response2. Balance!b. Ironi. Also component of proteinsii. Functions:1. Myoglobina. Red blood cells2. Myelin sheatha. Protective wrap around nerves3. Neurotransmittersiii. Deficiency1. Learning disabilitiesc. Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin)i. Myelin sheathii. Activates folate1. Folate activates B-12iii. Deficiency1. Causea. Low intakeb. Low intrinsic factor2. Severe neurological problemsa. Pernicious anemiad. Folate (folic acid)i. DNA synthesis1. Cell divisionii. Deficiency1. Causes B-12 deficiency2. In pregnancya. Neural tube defects (spinal tube does not close properly)3. Enrichment in bread floure. Potassiumi. Positive intracellular ionii. Nerve Cellsiii. Muscle contractioniv. Potassium Loss1. Can occur rapidlya. Vomitingb. Diarrheac. Sweating2. Weakness3. Cardiac Arrhythmiaf. Sodiumi. Na-K exchangeii. Nerve pulsesiii. Loss1. Decreases exercise capacity2. Crampingg. Calciumi. Muscle contractionii. Influx of Cah. Chromiumi. Enhances Insulin1. Bindingi. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)i. Synthesis of non-essential AAii. Neurotransmittersiii. Deficiency1. Neurological problemsiv. Water-soluble Vitamin that can have toxicity problemsj. Vitamin Ci. Cofactor in synthesis of collagen1. Connective tissue2. Scurvy = failure of collagenii. Neurotransmittersiii. Enhances Immune ResponseII. Antioxidantsa. Role: protect against oxidative damagei. Need more than one antioxidant!1. Work in different placesb. Free radical oxygeni. Singlet electron1. Cascade of reactions2. Damagea. Cell membranesb. Cell proteinsc. Oxidize LDLi. Enhances plaquesd. Eyei. Cataractsii. Macular Degeneratione. DNA i. Carcinogenesisii. Antioxidant vitamins and provitamins1. Donate an electrona. Stabilize free radicaliii. Antioxidant Minerals1. Part of Enzymesa. Neutralize Free radicals2. Vitamin C – water-solublea. Extracellular fluidb. Lungs3. Vitamin E – fat-solublea. Protects polyunsaturated fatsb. Deficiencyi. Cell membranes break down1. White Blood Cells (Immune Response)4. Vitamin A (retinol) and carotenoids – fat-solublea. Carotenoids: precursor (provitamin)i. B-carotene better antioxidant!1. 500 carotenoidsa. B-caroteneb. Lycopenec. Luteinb. Other functions of Ai. Vision1. Color2. Low lightii. Differentiation1. Skin conditions2. Cancerc. Deficiencyi. Night Blindnessii. Total Blindness5. Seleniuma. Enzyme componenti. Neutralized free radicalsc. Pro-oxidantsi. Increase Oxidationii. In excess1. Iron2. Zinc3. B-caroteneIII. Anemiaa. Red Blood Cell Synthesis (Erythropoiesis)1. Hemoglobin transports O2 to myoglobin2. CO2 to lingsii. Nutrients required for synthesis of Hemoglobin1. Deficiencya. Anemiai. Inadequate number of red blood cells1. Insufficient O2 to cellsii. Symptoms1. No energya. Hard to concentrateb. Exercise performance pooriii. Folate (folic acid)1. DNA synthesisa. Cell divisioni. Macrocytic/Megaloblastic anemia1. “Big cell anemia”iv. Vitamin B-121. Activates folate2. Deficiency causes pernicious Anemiaa. Slow-developing anemia (PLUS neurological problems!)3. Large folate supplements can mask B-12 deficiency!v. B-61. Synthesis of Hemoglobin2. Rare way to get anemiavi. Iron1. Most common deficiency2. (Also most common toxicity!)3. Microcytic anemiaa. Small


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